Tomorrow, Sept. 25, the first U.S. auction of carbon emission permits will take place, with owners of power plants and industrial facilities in six northeastern states participating. Starting at 9 in the morning and running until midnight, it is organized by the 10-state Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, the first mandatory interstate carbon trading system in the United States. Meanwhile, seven states and four Canadian provinces participating in the Western Climate Initiative released a plan yesterday to reduce their collective emissions 15 percent by 2020: taking effect in 2012, it would set annual emissions caps and issue allowances to organizations affectedâ''90 percent of those allowances are to be issued free, only 10 percent auctioned.
Carbon trading got off to a rocky start in Europe, with prices gyrating and much too low, initially, to induce any real corrective action by industry. One might suppose, given the aggressive leadership on climate exercised by countries like the UK and Germany, that the European system would have set emissions caps based on their Kyoto commitments and then ratcheted down the caps each year so as to meet Kyoto targets. But that would have been politically unsellable. What Europe actually does is ask each country to volunteer a cap, which is then modified in negotiations between the EU Commission and the member governments. This of course is a recipe for intense lobbying by industry, with predictable results.
The problem is ongoing. Germany announced this week that it would seek to exempt most of its industry from the proposed next step in ETS, which would involve mandatory auction of emissions allowances in the period 2013-20 (currently the European permits are issued free). Chancellor Merkel, sounding remarkably like President Bush seven years ago, said she â''could not support the destruction of German jobs through an ill-advised climate policy.â''
After a year of digital picture taking, a year-and-a-half of sorting photos, and days and days of number crunching using custom software on a Hewlett-Packard desktop computer, artist Samuel Yates is finally ready to answer a question posed back in 2002: What color is Palo Alto?
Well, almost ready. Because Palo Alto is in Silicon Valley, and Silicon Valley is full of engineers. So itâ''s not surprising that a Silicon Valley artist thinks a bit like an engineer. Which means to answer the question he has to decide exactly what kind of color heâ''s talking about, and what he means by an average, and thatâ''s not so easy.
For now, on his website thecolorofpaloalto.com, Yates offers the results of a variety of calculations, yielding different colors. He looks at several so-called â''color spaces,â'' that is, ways of defining color by combinations of components, including the familiar RGB (red, green, blue), HSV (hue, saturation, value), and LAB (luminance, A chrominance B chrominance, used in US analog television broadcasts), He considered dozens of different ways of finding statistically accurate mathematical average of the 1.3 billion pixels in the roughly 70,000 photographs, one for each piece of property in town, considering mean, median, mode, Heronian mean, Identric mean, Stolarsky mean, and a long list of others, and plans to make the entire data set available for people to averag using their favorite mathematical technique. And he recalculates his averages according to seasons, months, days, specific neighborhoods, streets.
A selection of streets, looking at mean of modes of the HSV colors.
The final, official, color of Palo Alto will be determined later this fall. Yates has selected HSV as the official color space, in a nod to Xeroxâ''s Palo Alto Research Center, which used HSV in Superpaint, the first computer system explicitly designed to create art via a graphical user interface. Heâ''s narrowed the averaging methodologies down to threeâ''the mean of means, mean of modes, and mode of means. And then, starting in October, heâ''ll ask city residents to vote on which three colors most accurately represents Palo Alto. It will be, he says, a shade of green, a pleasant surprise, he says. â''I was hoping for something like that; my worst case scenario would have been grey or brown or beige,â'' spending years of his life to end up with grey would not have made this artist happy, though, he says, â''it would have been funny.â'' He expects people to campaign for their favorite colors.
A campaign button.
Meanwhile, Yates is thinking about other ways to look at this data. For example, he can find the unique color of a specific property, that is, what color pixel that property has that no other property in town contains. Using the average data for a property or a street, along with this information about unique colors, Yates is considering generating plaids; each neighborhood, for example, could have a unique plaid, with, he suggests, â''the mean of means the background color, the unique colors highlight colors, and the plaid angled to represent the compass direction of a street, the width representing the number of parcels on the streetâ'' Like Scottish clans, each neighborhood in town could have a unique plaid.
One plaid generated from the data.
Yates is hoping his years of work will find practical uses as well as artistic ones. He has offered to provide the complete final set of photographs to the city of Palo Alto at no charge; the city has already designed its 911 system to bring up a photograph of the correct building, if available, along with a parcel map, when a 911 calls comes in; Yates photographs will likely be put into that system. He expects the photographs will also be used by the city planning department to review along with existing aerial photographs when discussing building permits, and by city arborists when residents call with questions about trees in their yard (saving a trip out to the house to determine just what kind of tree theyâ''re talking about). He anticipates that the database of photos will be updated by the city during final inspections of new constructions or remodels.
Todayâ''s deal puts EDF in charge of almost all of the UKâ''s nuclear power plants and gives it control of most attractive sites for building new ones. This is important because the British government advocates an aggressive program of nuclear expansion, and wants to have at least four new plants in operation by 2017.
Unlike the late President Gerald Ford, to recall Lyndon Johnsonâ''s denigrating joke, EDF showed this week that it can walk and chew gum at the same time. On Friday it made a last-ditch attempt to boost its stake in Constellation Energy, which it hoped to make its bridgehead for entry into the U.S. nuclear construction industry. But Constellation still preferred to stick with Warren Buffett, who has promised the company a $1 billion cash injection.
In these troubled economic times, evidently, having Buffettâ''s confidence means more than the worldâ''s best engineering expertise.
The music industry, which for years has been complaining about unauthorized copying and distribution of their intellectual property, now has company. Sharing their piracy misery are textbook publishers. An increasing number of book titles are showing up on peer-to-peer file sharing sites, as students, with Napster as a historical blueprint, copy then digitize hundreds of pages in order to make them available over the Web for free.
What would motivate a college kid to stand at a photocopier for hours? Revenge. Many students feel that they're being fleeced by publishers who, aided and abetted by professors, force new and ever more expensive editions of texts on young people already hard hit by dramatic tuition increases. Students argue that there is no reason, besides greed, for a book seller to introduce new versions of, say, a chemistry or calculus text in successive years. After all, they point out, the basic theorems and physical laws haven't changed since last September.
The reissues are an effective countermeasure against the bane of publishers' existence: the used book market where students can get a textâ''with the possible added bonus of passages highlighted by a student from an earlier semesterâ''for as little as half of the publisher's suggested retail price. In some cases, we're talking about a $100 difference.
Is this form of textbook sharing illegal? Yes. But the publishers, like the major record labels, asked for it. They made buying the materials essential to participation in a college course a zero-sum game. Either the publisher sees a windfall when a student is forced to buy a $200 book that contains the same information as the $50 version that his or her professor has now decided is a poor companion to the class lectures, or it makes no profit at all when that same $50 book is recycled each semester.
Think back for a second. I know I'm not the only person who once bought vinyl records and was continually amazed at how record labels would shamelessly package dreck with the great songs that motivated music fans to buy albums. Digital file sharing changed the game seemingly overnight, ushering in the current a la carte scheme that allows me to buy the three or four songs I like for a buck each. But before the music labels got religion, they had to have their pockets picked by pirates. This same scenario may be playing out again, with file sharing turning publishing on its ear.
The expanding use of bit torrent sites as giant book swaps has the publishers clawing for a way to prevent purchasers from sharing. They've hired teams of lawyers who have sent hundreds of legal notices to Web sites hosting pirated files demanding that the material be removed. But the publishing houses' proposed magic bullet is selling the texts as e-books, with digital rights management in place. Thought e-books would be significantly cheaper than their physical analogs, a student would have access only for the semester and, I guess, be limited in terms of how he or she could access the material. This, the publishers think, will help them to eliminate the used book market and illegal downloads.
Good luck with that, I say. By digitizing the books, they are eliminating the drudgery that is now the main limiting factor in online textbook trading. They are betting that they will be able to keep the files under tight control. But how successful will they be? To quote from the movie Jurassic Park, "Nature always finds a way." And the nature of young people faced with a problem created by what they perceive to be an unreasonable authority figure is to devise an ingenious solution or a brilliant workaround.
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, or KAUST, is building what it says will be the highest-performance computing system in the Middle East. Named Shaheen, the machine will be used by the universityâ''s faculty and its international cadre of sponsored researchers. Very well and good. Except that the university doesnâ''t really exist yet.
Next September, the graduate-level school will open its doors â'' by which time it presumably will have doors â'' to faculty and students. Backed by Saudi Aramco, the school's aim is to improve the quality of the country's scientific and technological expertise. To that end, Shaheen will be Saudi Arabiaâ''s first supercomputer dedicated to academic research, though the need to model oil and gas reserves has pulled in high-performance computing experts for years. â''In Saudi, typically someone brings in a machine and the application is always relevant to oil and gas,â'' says Majid Al-Ghaslan, KAUSTâ''s interim chief information officer, who led the hunt for the supercomputer.
For now, though, KAUST isnâ''t much more than a construction site on the Red Sea, so the machine will initially reside at IBMâ''s Watson Research Center, in Yorktown, New York.
Shaheen, which is the Arabic word for peregrine falcon, will be a 16-rack Blue Gene/P system made up of 65,536 independent processing cores. It will be capable of 222 teraflop/s, or 222 trillion floating operations per second. â''No oneâ''s ever tried to bring up this much capacity while building the facility at the same time,â'' Al-Ghaslan says. The university says its performance will fall in the top 10 of supercomputers in the world. Within two years, KAUST expects to scale the machine up to a petaflop of computing capability.
This past June, the latest Top500 supercomputer rankings registered a new record with Los Alamos National Laboratoryâ''s RoadRunner, the first general-purpose supercomputer known to have a peak performance of more than one petaflop/s, or one quadrillion floating-point operations per second.
Earth magazine has a riveting account of the history of the largest oil spill in the U.S., and the cleanup technologies being developed to deal with it. And that oil spill is not where you think it is, unless you're thinking Brooklyn, New York. "The plume â'' a toxic concoction of kerosene, fuel oil, gasoline and naptha (a key ingredient in napalm) â'' floats at the top of a subterranean aquifer beneath the working-class community of Greenpoint in Brooklyn."
Experts say between 17 and 30 million gallons of oil have been accumulating there since the mid-1800s. Oil companies started the cleanup about 30 years ago, but only 9.5 million gallons of oil have been recovered. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, finishing the job could take another 25 years.
To get the oil out of the ground, ExxonMobil siphons it from the water table using a system similar to skimming fat off the top of a pot of chicken soup (delicious!). So far, the company has pulled about 6 million gallons of oil out of the ground.
Well, at least for the security part of the business that will entail licensing the Nanoplex technology back from BD. As for the energy business, thatâ''s a hard one to figure out after the legal case on the IP for the underlying technology didnâ''t go the way Oxonica would have hoped.
The Large Hadron Collider had barely started up when it had to be shut down yesterday, the New York Times reports.
After the machine was successfully fired up on Sept. 10, CERN researchers were optimistic about starting actual collisions by mid-October.
Several mishaps, including the failure of a 30-ton electrical transformer, have slowed progress since then. In the worst case, on Friday, one of the giant superconducting magnets that guide the protons failed during a test. A large amount of helium, which is used to cool the magnets to within 3.5 degrees Fahrenheit of absolute zero, leaked into the collider tunnel.
In a terse statement, the laboratory said that an electrical connection between the magnets had melted because of the high current. To fix it, engineers will have to warm that section of the tunnel, and then cool it all the way down again.
If you can't get the thing started, how can you end the world?
For the first time in five year I'm back in Accra, Ghana, the pearl of Angolophone West Africa. The biggest change I see in Ghana's capital city is the proliferation of giant, seven-foot tall air conditioners.
That's right. Accra is the new Houston. Parts of the U.S. -- Vegas, Phoenix, Sacramento -- were only fully domesticated with the advent of relatively effective and efficient air conditioning. Yet the cooling technology that ignited the boom in the Sun Belt came during a long economic expansion in what once was the world's richest country. The arrival of super-duper air conditioners in Accra illustrates widening inequality in a relatively poor African country that is also home to a thin elite that wants creature comforts.
To be sure, Accra is hot, but the giant air conditioners are designed to do more than offer respite from tropical temperatures. The other night I ate dinner in Papaye, a marvelous local chicken-and-rice restaurant in the city's fashionable Osu district. Papaye has a posh clientele; main courses costs upwards of seven U.S. dollars. Five years ago, the restaurant relied on fans and small air conditioners. Now four large wall-size units blast out cool air, so aggressively that napkins blow off tables and hair styles wave in the wind.
The idea isn't to keep people cool but rather to send a message of opulence. These elite diners can afford irrationally powerful air conditioning.
Mega-AC may be limited to the top tier of Accra society, yet these are the very people who lead. By consuming so much electricity in pursuit of status cool, these new African rich are making harder the task of promoting energy efficiency in their countries. And Ghana, as well as most other African countries, face serious shortages of electricity.
There may be other subtle damage from super-cool AC. On Thursday, the day before I visited Papaye, I gave a lecture at the University of Ghana. As students and faculty filed into a long rectangular room, someone switched on the air conditioners. I suddenly felt a cold blast of air. Or rather two of them.
I was, I realized, caught between the crossfire of dueling air conditioners. Freezing,
Before I began my lecture, I asked that the AC go off.
People murmured and squirmed in their seats. There was silence. Then a single intrepid student rose and objected. He wanted to the AC to stay on.
I over-ruled him, the privilege of the visitor lecturer, I insisted.
When he complained again, I made my final comment on the matter. â''You will listen more carefully to me if you are hot and sweaty,â'' I said. â''Suffering concentrates the mind.â''
The room erupted in laughter â'' nervous laughter.
Thereâ''s a listen here about how social reality and human invention co-exist, and not always easily.
Last night, I attended the Digital Experience Holiday Spectacular in New York City, a consumer electronics media event where the whoâ''s who and â''Whoâ''s that?â'' gather to gain buzz for their latest and greatest. As I passed by the tables looking for something that wasnâ''t just an incremental improvement over last year or something slapped together as a placeholder between now and the Consumer Electronics Show in January, one interesting trend slowly became apparent.
Bluetooth wireless earpiece makers have finally gotten the message: if they want to make a mint selling these handsfree devices the way cellular handset makers have raked in cash selling phones, they had better do something about these gadgetsâ'' pitiful sound quality. In the interest of full disclosure, I have to reveal that a Bluetooth headset was my most prized gift last Christmas. But it is now interred in my personal consumer electronics mausoleum (read: sock drawer) along with a couple of old cellphones, a Handspring Visor, and some digital watches whose batteries I never bothered to replace.
Why did I retire it so soon? Because its single most outstanding trait was its ability to heighten the frustration that comes along with the conveniences of wireless telephony. Iâ''ll give you an example. In New York State, where I live, drivers are required to use handsfree devices. But Iâ''ve got twin two-year-old boys, and the phrase, â''Shhhh, daddyâ''s trying to talk on the phone,â'' holds as much meaning for them as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. And in that enclosed space, trying to have a conversation was very often an exercise in comic futility. All I got for my trouble was reduced time between charges on my handset, because maintaining the connection to the earpiece drew precious energy from its tiny battery.
But now, just in time for the upcoming holiday season, come a bunch of new â''Bluetoothsâ'' that might sound as good as AT&Tâ''s plain old telephone service circa 1960. Motorola showed a tiny earpiece that its PR rep says will allow you to talk to someone from, say, the floor of an industry tradeshow and convince them that youâ''re in the stacks at your local library. Plantronics was hawking earpieces featuring a technology it calls AudioIQ thatâ''s supposed to suppress nearly all background noise. One of the high end models has two microphonesâ''one to pick up the speakerâ''s voice, and the other to take in, digitize, then eliminate the surrounding cacophony. A small company called Jawbone showcased an elegant device that has taken a contract out on noise with a technology called Noise Assassin.
I have no idea how well these products do what they purport to do. But the reps all promise to put me in touch with product managers and engineers who can explain what makes AudioIQ so smart and what weapons the Noise Assassin has at its disposal. Iâ''ll report back. And who knows? I might be convinced to give these Bluetooth gizmos another shot.
IEEE Spectrum’s general technology blog, featuring news, analysis, and opinions about engineering, consumer electronics, and technology and society, from the editorial staff and freelance contributors.