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Holiday Greetings From the Moon: 40 Years Ago

On 24 December 1968, the crew of Apollo 8 made rendezvous with the moon. That day they became the first humans to journey to a new celestial body. The success of their mission laid the groundwork several months later for the astronauts of Apollo 11 to land on the lunar surface and return safely to our planet.

The flight of Apollo 8 produced one of the most historic images of all time, Earthrise at Christmas. After orbiting the moon some 20 times, the crew took a moment out from their engineering tasks, in consideration of the date, to read passages from the Bible in a live broadcast to the people of Earth.

"In the beginning God created the Heaven and the Earth," Pilot James Lovell began. Then he and his crewmates continued to read aloud from the opening of the Book of Genesis.

Commander Frank Borman concluded the broadcast with the following words: "We close with good night, good luck, a Merry Christmas, and God bless all of you -- all of you on the good Earth."

The passing of the decades has done little to diminish from the significance of their message.

May you also share in the spirit of that historic day at this special time of the year.

Virtual Colonoscopy Takes A Real Step Forward

On 19 December, the president of Stony Brook University in New York announced that it had licensed technologies for virtual colonoscopy invented there--including a computerized technique that makes it possible to see colon walls without having to evacuate the bowels--to Siemens, one of the world's leading makers of medical devices. Virtual colonoscopy uses computerized tomography to create 3D images of the colon, eliminating the need for the fiber optic endoscope that is snaked through the gastrointestinal tract in a conventional colonoscopy. Stony Brook researchers recently patented a refined electronic colon cleansing technique that will allow clinical radiologists to delete fecal matter and fluids from the 3D colon images so they can see the gut, the whole gut, and nothing but the gut.

IEDM Roundup, part 1

At this year's International Electron Devices Meeting in San Francisco, the phrase of the day was 22nm CMOS. Because it is the smallest manufacturable feature of a transistor, and because those transistors have been getting inexorably smaller for the past 40 years, the technology node is the defining characteristic of microchips. I was under the impression that fabrication had barely started on integrated circuits at the 45-nanometer node, which represents the current state of the art. But though I have heard precious little about 32 this year, 22nm invaded the territory before 2008 was even out. 32 nm, in other words, is already chopped liver.

What is this middle child phenomenon of one node announced to great fanfare, followed by a sudden uptick in research activity two nodes downstream? Let's take Intel as an example of this behavior: giving birth to the 45-nm node was a rough delivery for them. They needed an epidural and a high-k gate insulator--the first fundamental redesign of the CMOS transistor in 40 years-- to make it happen. Now it seems like they can coast on their research for another node. Last November the first 45-nm chips rolled out of the fab. A year later (last Wednesday to be exact) Intel announced 32nm, and several papers at IEDM detailed some of the technical aspects of 32 nm. (more on that in a later, dedicated post)

The other major themes at IEDM were "More than Moore," and 3-d stackable chips. The smaller, faster transistor, the staple of Moore's Law, is going to start needing a little help as we approach the physical limits of scaling (and 22nm is pretty close to that limit). The most popular idea seemed to be stacking integrated circuits atop one another, the basic skyscraper idea. Only now they're not doing it to conserve real estate for the traditonal reasons of making transistors smaller. The need to do it to shorten the wiring between the countless points A and points B.

As detailed in an article in this month's Spectrum, IEEE Fellow Peter M. Kogge found that if technology trends continue into the future, exascale computing will still be just a dream in 2015.

Getting to exascale by thenâ''or everâ''requires among other things an intensive focus on reducing the power devoted to moving data around in computers.

One way to do that involves stacking layers of integrated circuits atop each other. Hence the extreme focus on 3D ICs.

One of the best panels was on biomedical applications where USC's James Weiland presented a design for an artificial retina that can enable facial recognition and reading. University of California San Francisco researcher Tejal Desai discussed her research on drug-delivery nanospheres -- microscopic fuzzy "tennis balls" whose nanowire-velcro can bind them inside the gastrointestinal tract for better drug delivery.

The problem in the past has been that for oral drug delivery, a pill delivers only about five percent of its medicinal payload. Five percent! That's because the GI tract was designed explicitly to block absorption of foreign materials. It just keeps passing the stuff downstream, and the combination of the mucosa and the tiny fingerlike appendages inside your GI tract (called villi) works to pass foreign objects down the pipeline as quickly as possible, never letting them stay in one place long enough to effectively deliver drugs to the bloodstream.

For aspirin, that's just fine because aspirin is cheap and you can take another one if you don't feel like it's working. But of course for a cancer drug or some other kind of very expensive medication that needs to be specifically targeted, you really want the most possible medication and the most accurate possible dose.

Nanoparticles filled with a drug payload, and coated with velcro-like nanowires interlock with the GI villi to keep them in one place for long enough to let the drug cross into the blood stream.

One observer, however, was less sanguine about targeted drug delivery. "This is fine for medicine that just has to make it to the bloodstream," he said. But for medicines that are using the bloodstream as a highway to get somewhere else in the body? Once it's in the blood, it's not home free-- there, the drug is attacked by all kinds of biological entities and broken down long before it gets to its target organ or receptor.

Many people thought that real targeted drug delivery will start once we start engineering specific viruses for that purpose. Viruses make the 22 nm node look like Godzilla.

Australian telco kicked out of national broadband bidding

from our reporter Monica Heger:

In November, we reported on Australiaâ''s attempts to create a national broadband network. At the time, analysts thought it likely that Telstra, the main telecommunications company, would get the bid. Recently though, they were kicked out of the bid process because of an unwillingness to open up their infrastructure. According to an article at Australiaâ''s iTnews, Telstra did not include a plan to involve small and medium enterprises in building the network. Telstraâ''s CEO Sol Trujilo said that was not part of the bid requirements. The Australian government says otherwise. The government could still change its mind and decide to award Telstra the $ AUS 4.7 billion bid if it decides that the other proposals are not feasible or will take too long to complete.

Inflatable robots will terrorize us soon

These squirmy balloon robots, called Eggy Robots, are described as "the very first attempt to implement a totally soft robot." On first read, that sounds quite cozy. But coziness is not the goalâ''Eggy Robots are apparently intended to chase humans. At least that's the premise behind this work by Yoichiro Kawaguchi, a computer graphics artist at the University of Tokyo. A Kawaguchi balloon creature is controlled by a motor in the base, which pulls on wires that run through the body. At SIGGRAPH Asia, where I saw these last week, all that one red robot could do was bend its torso, bob its head, and wiggle its eyeballs. Once pneumatic muscles are installed, it will start wheezily hopping after us all.

But for now they lack intelligence, so they're basically just inflatable sculptures. That's a less unusual genre than you might think, as the Eggy Robots weren't the only inflatable beings sojourning in Singapore last week. On the other end of town, the Singapore Art Museum had an outdoor installation of Untitled (Balloon Flower), by an artist called IMEX(k):


It's a replica, made of balloon, of a Jeff Koons sculpture called Balloon Flower... which is itself a massive steel replica of a balloon flower:


I bet Kawaguchi wouldn't mind seeing a giant robotic Eggy made of steel, followed by a robotic replica of that, back in balloon material. Feeling light-headed?

Photo credits: chooyutshing/flickr and Daimler Art Collection

Power-line radiation and childhood leukemia: this cold case may finally be solved

j0399316.gifPower lines and childhood leukemia. This was big news in the 1970s, when epidemiologists found cancer clusters in neighborhoods near high-voltage power lines. In the late 80s, the New Yorker published a breakthrough series of articles bringing a human face to the issue.

Based on the epidemiology, it seemed like there had to be some kind of link. The problem was, scientists, working with cells and animals in laboratory experiments, couldnâ''t find a conclusive cause. And the issue fell off the proverbial radar screen, as the public became more concerned about cell phone radiation and brain tumors.

Granger Morgan and his colleagues at Carnegie Mellon University advised "prudent avoidance" in a series of booklets on the subject as well as articles in Spectrum. Basically, take reasonable steps to minimize risk, but don't drive yourself nuts. That made sense to me; as part of research for an article I had my house tested for EMF (back in the day when my local utility would provide this service on request). After I found out the biggest emitter was the clock on the front of my stove, I had it disconnected (seemed prudent, I was pregnant at the time and cooked a lot). Then I pretty much forgot about it.

Until this week, when scientists from the Jiao Tong University School of Medicine in Shanghai announced the results of research that may finally explain just how EMF radiation causes childhood leukemia. Xiaoming Shen and his colleagues determined that the distribution of leukemia among children living hear high voltage power lines or transformers is not random; rather, it affects children carrying a certain genetic variantâ''that is, the ability to repair DNA breaksâ''vastly more often.

This simple sounding finding has huge implications. Researchers have long thought that EMF radiation caused DNA breaks, but couldnâ''t figure out how. Shenâ''s research points to a different mechanism; the EMF radiation doesnâ''t cause the breaks, but inhibits DNA repair, particularly in children that have a weakened repair mechanism to begin with.

Others will likely try to repeat this research and may, finally, close this cold case.

SIGGRAPH Asia: 3D models from photographs

Two presentations in a session on urban modeling here delved into generating three-dimensional models of buildings and streets from casual sets of photographs.

Generating 3D models from 2D images isnâ''t a particularly advanced field, so these two new approaches definitely caught my eye. The state of the art requires a fair amount of user guidance to help the image-processing algorithms differentiate between a target object and visual clutter, such as trees, passing cars, and street signs. There's plenty of room for improvement in accuracy and detail, and users can always hope for a faster process and simpler interfaces.

Currently, the most accessible method of 3D modeling from photographs is probably Google SketchUpâ''s Photo Match feature. SketchUp is a modeling application that Google bought and then released almost three years ago. In Photo Match, a user imports an image and then traces over the lines of a buildingâ''the more sets of parallel lines, the better. Not surprisingly, those lines carry information about the perspective of the camera when the image was shot. The program uses that data to extrapolate the overall shape of the building. Once the rough outline is in place, the software can extract patterns from the photo to overlay texture detail. Voila, a quick-and-dirty 3D building. For better results, you can do the whole thing over again with another photo of the hidden sides.

The two methods presented here apply new methods to processing a collection of photos of a target scene.

One technique came out of a partnership between the University of North Carolinaâ''Chapel Hill, UC-Berkeley, ETH Zurich, and Microsoft Research. This approach starts with a jumble of images of a building or city. Preliminary image analysis identifies the imageâ''s vanishing points, similar to Photo Match. A user traces the rectangular outlines of the primary building walls, a geometric model is generated, and the textures from the original photograph are applied. My sense is that the main advances here over Photo Match are in the intelligent way that the photos are processed together to create a preliminary model, and in a simpler user experience. In ten to fifteen minutes, you can easily generate a model of a building from 8 or 9 photos. Give it an hour and 120 photographs and itâ''ll generate a fairly accurate model of a city. Of course, itâ''s a trade-off between the quantity of data needed to start off and the fidelity of the model.

The second method came from researchers at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and the National University of Singapore. It focused on facades rather than complete buildings. To start, a photographer drives down a street and takes successive shots of a continuous façade (of a shopping street, for example). Those photos are automatically lined up, pattern-matched, and analyzed at a fairly deep level to generate a large mapping of points that capture the color, texture, and depth of various parts of a facade. The images are broken down into sections, analyzed for things such as embedded symmetries (to identify evenly spaced features that ought to be identical), then merged back together to speed up the rendering. A user helps the program identify the façadeâ''s salient features (this part of the talk was left unclear), and voila, an extremely detailed rendering of a street face pops up.

Neither approach is complete, but things move fast in the graphics world. It could be a matter of months before something along these lines gets incorporated into existing 3D modeling tools.

SIGGRAPH Asia: Virtual tigers, real engineers

If you're set on building a virtual reality installation, you've basically got a few paths to choose from:

- reflect ponderously on the shortcomings of perception.

- juxtapose unfamiliar environments for the sake of being weird.

- claim it's all for the greater good of education, expanding the mind, or shrinking physical distances.

In other words, there's a reason that VR has struggled to find its place. But that doesn't mean my cynical heart didn't thaw at the sight of this virtual take on historical fiction, by students from Nanyang Technological University, in Singapore. It explores local lore about the last wild tiger in Singapore, which was supposedly shot at the famous Raffles Hotel. (In addition to giving the world one dead tiger, the hotel also reputedly invented the Singapore Sling.)

In this installation, a user wears a headset that superimposes a video projection on a real-world set. As the individual turns his or her head, the head-mounted display exposes new facets of the scene. It's a bit hard to follow for observers not wearing the headset, but the swift changes in perspective do make for a convincing visual experience for the user.

SIGGRAPH Asia: Advice to a budding graphics guru

The first SIGGRAPH held in Asia is under way this week in Singapore, and the usual arts and entertainment crowd is parading its wares at this epic graphics technology conference. Iâ''ve struggled to resist asking exhibitors that awful wet-blanket question, â''soâ'¿ what could this possibly be useful for?â'' because of course that isnâ''t always the point. Nonetheless, I canâ''t help wondering how many versions of, say, gesture-based gaming the world could possibly need.

So it was with some satisfaction that I listened to Don Greenberg, an early graphics pioneer, question that same narrow focus on entertainment in his keynote speech here. Greenberg, the director of Cornellâ''s computer graphics program, noted that while cutting-edge computer graphics research into animation and gaming is unquestionably valuable, the uses for those talents are also obvious in fields such as medical imaging, computer-aided design, and architectural modeling, to name a few. And with the ubiquity of display devices and cheap processing power, that algorithmic and software expertise ought to find a broader audience.

Greenberg cited a project he recently worked on with his son, a surgeon at the Cleveland Clinic. They came up with mathematical models to design a personalized intravascular stent, which is used to prop open vessels to allow for healthy blood flow through a constricted path. Applying graphics techniques to analyze CT scans, he was able to design within quarter-millimeter accuracy the size and shape of a personalized stent to fit a patientâ''s blood vessel. And that was done with precious little medical knowledge, so the barriers are low.

At a later panel with several LucasFilm artists, another point hit home. The reality is that while the gaming and special-effects industries are large, companies such as LucasFilm, Pixar, and Dreamworks predominantly hire artists and animators, with software engineers making up a much smaller percentage of the workforce. But of course itâ''s the engineers who are bringing new techniques to revolutionize the visual experience. The enthusiasm for graphics among computer scientists just isnâ''t matched, head for head, in the job market. Greenberg compared the artists-engineers discrepancy to an hourglass â'' the sand particles closest to the neck are moving and changing position the fastest, but they are also the fewest.

Graphics specialists are among the most artistic engineers out there. They, more than others, have whittled down that stereotypical left-brain, right-brain split to produce viscerally satisfying experiences. And they, more than others, may also be better-equipped to hop across disciplinary barriers and share their talents for the benefit of mankind.

Nanotechnology and the Glazed Over Look You Get When Describing It

Long ago I lost count on the times I have tried to explain what nanotechnology is to friends and family. Despite the large number of times I have engaged in this fruitless enterprise, the reaction process is striking similar in most cases.

First you get earnest interestâ''they are your friends and family after all. Then you begin to see the confusion start to set in, which is usually accompanied by what seems to you a very strange question. After trying to answer the question, the confusion has become so great that they have completely lost interest and they are staring off into the ether dreaming of when you are going to shut up.

After listening to Professor Tony Ryan of Sheffield University conduct man-on-the-street interviews for the BBCâ''s Street Science radio program, I couldnâ''t help but think about the times I have engaged in the joyless job of describing nanotech.

Against insurmountable odds Professor Ryan sallies forth again and again to meet his enemyâ'¿umh I mean public. Unbowed after getting responses from university professors who confess all they know about nanotechnology is â''grey gooâ'', he tries to get his interviewees to grasp some basic concept about nanotechnology.

Itâ''s hard to know if he really succeeds with anyone. But after a lengthy and somewhat complicated explanation to a couple of how nanotechnology is involved in 2-in-1 shampoo, which initially elicits the typical â''Isnâ''t that interestingâ'' response, the man asks something like â''Wouldnâ''t it make more sense to use this technology for treating diseases rather than making shampoo?â''

If I were Professor Ryan, I would walk away with the feeling that this one question alone made it all worth it.


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