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We need a bill to ban importing other people's nuclear waste?

I've been half-following this story, and I can't tell if it's a tempest in a teapot, or the real thing. Today Tennessee Rep. Bart Gordon, the chairman of the House Science and Technology Committee, introduced legislation to ban the Nuclear Regulatory Commission from allowing us to import foreign-generated nuclear waste.

â''No other country in the world is accepting nuclear waste from other countries,â'' said Gordon. â''By doing so, the United States is putting itself in position to become the worldâ''s nuclear dumping ground.â''

According to the terms of the bill, the president can grant specific exemptions if an application shows importing said waste would serve a national or international policy goal, such as a research purpose.

In February, Utah-based EnergySolutions applied for an NRC license to import 20,000 tons of low-level nuclear waste (that means no glowing rods) from decommissioned nuclear reactors in Italy. The waste would be ultimately disposed of at a site in Clive, Utah. â''The United States has only a finite amount of space available for disposal of nuclear waste,â'' said Gordon.

Vietnam Set to Launch First Satellite

Citing a need to upgrade its communications infrastructure, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam said today that it's ready to join the satellite club.

According to numerous sources (Associated Press, Reuters, and others), Vietnam has purchased a specially-built satellite from Lockheed Martin for US $200 million and will spend an unreported amount to launch it into orbit next month aboard an Ariane 5 rocket built by ArianeSpace SA, of Evry, France.

The satellite, known as VINASAT-I, has the transmission capacity to handle 10 000 voice/Internet/data channels or 120 television channels, according to the Vietnam Posts and Telecommunication Group (VNPT) and has an expected lifespan of 15 to 20 years.

A spokesperson for the state-sponsored group said the country will also build a pair of ground stations to work with VINASAT-I, in northern Ha Tay province and southern Binh Duong province. These will bring the total price tag of the project up to $300 million, a sum the Communist government hopes to recoup over the next decade.

"Vietnam has reached the point where significant improvements of the telecommunication infrastructure are needed for its economic and social development," VNPT Vice General Director Nguyen Ba Thuoc said at a press conference in Hanoi today.

He said that growth in the telecommunications sector in Vietnam has risen sharply in the last few years, with some 19 million people subscribed to Internet services and 30 million signed up for cell phones (out of a population of 85 million).

Up until now, Vietnam has been leasing satellite services from Australia, Thailand, and Russia at a cost of $15 million.

The 2.4 metric ton satellite is scheduled for launch April 12 from the Centre Spatial Guyanais, at Kourou, French Guiana (the same base that launched the European Space Agency's Jules Verne Automated Transfer Vehicle on Sunday).

"Vietnam will be more active to improve network capability and quality of telecommunication, IT, and communication services and to reduce the gap between cities and rural areas," added Thuoc.

He noted that the new satellite will meet public needs such as providing weather information and navigation guidelines to fishing ships and oil rigs, as well as offer remote health-care and education services to islands and remote areas.

The launch will make Vietnam the fifth Southeast Asian nation to operate its own satellite service, joining Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines, which all told employ 80 spacecraft in geostationary orbit.

Landmark Funding for Water Ship

Today, Houston-based Water Standard Company announced an unprecedented funding commitment from two New York-based investment funds, which were so impressed with the startup's plan that they invested $250 million: that's arguably the largest initial funding in the history of the water industry.

Water Standard's plan is to create a fleet of Seawater Desalination Vessels-- mobile, ship-based water treatment facilities that can churn out 300,000 cubic meters of drinking water per day. Water Standard CEO Amanda Brock explained to me how these ships could end the global water crisis.

It's a truism of the 21st century that water is the new oil. Global warming is already catalyzing droughts throughout China, Australia and now the Western United States (among many other places). At this point, El Paso, Texas gets 40% of its water from so-called "toilet-to-tap" wastewater recycling. Some municipalities are luckier. If you're on a shoreline, you have a limitless supply of ocean water to desalinate. But global warming is the gift that keeps on giving-- in addition to creating further droughts, experts also predict that the severity and number of hurricanes and typhoons will rise over the coming century. Such storms hit hardest on shores, and they have the capacity to knock a coastal desalination plant into the middle of next week.

Brock argues that her ships are a better bet for seawater treatment than conventional shore-based plants. Aside from their ability to get out of the path of a hurricane, the ships are also better at protecting the environment.

Evironmentalist don't much like the land-based facilities because their technology is hazardous to marine life. Those plants have to suck in seawater with so much force that they often trap fish and other marine life in the stream. Needless to say, the fish don't survive the process. But Water Standard says its water intake and discharge systems minimize the technology's impact on marine life.

The full story is at Spectrum Online.

â¿¿Nanotechnology Phoneâ¿¿ Now Has a Video

For those of you interested in the mobile phone this blog highlighted last month, and which may not be available for another seven years, you now have a video to while away the time until the phone hits the market.

Re-focusing Environmental and Health Concerns of Nanotechnology

The latest scare screed from an NGO on the subject of nanotechnology comes from the Australian-based Friends of the Earth in their latest report â''Out of the laboratory and on to our plates: Nanotechnology in food and agricultureâ''. The report comes replete with images of faceless scientists injecting some unknown chemical into some fruit.

As propaganda goes this is top-notch stuff. As far as keeping to facts, and avoiding misleading hype, it falls short. TNTLog does a thorough job of putting the report in its appropriate place.

But the environmental and health concerns surrounding nanotechnology need to be addressed, and none more acutely than the occupational safety and health issues for those workers involved in manufacturing processes that employ nanoparticles.

Nanowerk has written a spotlight piece on this issue that introduces a recent report and survey conducted by Kaspar Schmid and Michael Riediker from the Institute of Health Economics and Management at the University of Lausanne in Switzerland entitled â''Use of Nanoparticles in Swiss Industry: A Targeted Surveyâ''.

While the Friends of the Earth select out portions of the 2004 Royal Society Report to arrive at a conclusion that a moratorium is needed on nanotechnology (something that the Royal Society Report never does itself), the Royal Society Report does express keen concern about â''freeâ'' nanoparticles and the risk that they may hold for workers.

The recent Swiss report is not trying to create headline-grabbing fear mongering, but is in the silent pursuit of facts. And one of the key findings is fairly disturbing: that there are few, if any, best-practice regulations from either industry or government on how to handle nanoparticles.

If concerns about the environmental and health impact of nanoparticles are to be fruitfully pursued, then addressing occupational health and safety of so-called nanoworkers is a good place to start and one where the risk is probably the highest.

By engaging in scare tactics that require the dubious linking of nanotechnology to genetic engineering and synthetic biology, important nanotoxicological research into nanoparticles and the best-practice regulations that would follow are prevented from getting their proper place in the list of priorities.

Out of Africa: Gutenberg, birth certificates and the elusive hegemony of information technology

In Africa, the Gutenberg revolution remains unfinished. For many people, printed documents are a novel technology, yet to fully penetrate all levels of society.

The news this week that the southern African country of Malawi will requires its citizens to have birth certificates for the first time got me thinking about a complex problem in African development: â''information povertyâ'' and the way old technologies retain the power to shock, to paraphrase the title of a recent book by David Edgerton, a British historian of technology.

Edgerton argues persuasively in his 2007 book, â''The Shock of the Old,â'' that well-established technologies retain the power to â''shockâ'' in a surprisingly large number of circumstances.

In Africa, many mature technologies have not yet been mastered. Electricity is probably the best understood. The recent power shortages around Africa are illustration of that. But a 500-year old printing technology, which began to transform Europe more than 500 years ago, is only now doing the same in sub-Saharan Africa. Printed documents â'' and the personal information that drives the creation of them â'' are only now becoming mainstream in many countries in the region.

In rural Africa, birth certificates remain atypical, though partly because government officials charge too much for them. The charges are a form of extortion but also a symptom a mentality that treats printing as an exotic technology, a scarce resource, an alien instrument.

In Africa, as I once explored in a paper for the Web journal, First Monday, the whole notion of information as an instrument of power â'' as a technology in the truest sense of the word â'' is poorly developed. In short, the motivation to master printing technology -- and to value printed documents -- is lacking because of an "information poor" environment.

In African cities, many -- dare I say most -- streets have no names. Home delivery of mail is virtually non-existent. Documentation of a person's identity is often non-existent.

The costs of "information poverty" are manifold. Governments in Africa can't deliver certain services because it is often impossible to prove who received them.

In the case, of children, the failure of most families to secure birth certificates creates the potential for mayhem. Who does a child belong to? The question can be impossible to answer without printed documents.

In Chad, another African country, a French non-profit recently caused an uproar by taking 103 local children -- presumed to have no parents -- and giving them to families in France. Even when the Chadian and French governments intervened to block the flawed adoptions -- because the children actually had parents -- figuring out who the kids actually belonged to wasn't easy -- because of a lack of documentation.

Printed documents are taken for granted industrialized societies. The people in these societies invest heavily in combating the problem of "information overload." Managin vast amounts of information is among the most lucrative pursuits by contemporary innovators: witness the great commercial success of Google.

Yet in Africa, "information poverty" remains a curious scourge.

Long live the printing press!

Two Spacecraft Prepare for Space Station Meetings

That's one up and one to go.

As NASA prepared for an early morning Tuesday flight of the Space Shuttle Endeavour, the European Space Agency (ESA) monitored the status of the latest cargo ship to fly into orbit on a mission to the International Space Station (or ISS).

On Sunday, the new Jules Verne Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) climbed into orbit atop a special Ariane 5 rocket from its launch pad at the ESA spaceport at Kourou, French Guiana. The first in its class, the unmanned Jules Verne is Europe's alternative to the U.S. space shuttle fleet. It weighs nearly 18 metric tons and is equipped with electronics that automate its flight once in space. Its maiden mission is to prove its abilities by carrying a 4.5-ton cargo of parts, propellant, water, and oxygen to the ISS. Initially, it will linger in low Earth orbit at an altitude of 260 kilometers.

Three weeks from now, mission controllers will instruct its computers to begin an ascent that will put it into a path that will rendezvous with the space station, orbiting 85 km higher. The delay in its journey has been planned to allow the Endeavour to safely come and go to the ISS in the meantime.

In that regard, NASA said today it is making final preparations for the launch of Endeavour in the wee hours of Tuesday morning.

This flight, known as STS-123, will carry the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Kibo Laboratory and the Canadian Space Agency's two-armed robotic system, known as Dextre, to the ISS. The 1500 kilogram robot will be assembled in space by American astronauts.

The 16-day mission will be helmed by Dominic Gorie with Gregory H. Johnson serving as pilot. The crew will include Mission Specialists Rick Linnehan, Robert L. Behnken, Mike Foreman, Garrett Reisman, and Japanese astronaut Takao Doi.

The cause for the overlap in the two missions arose from problems NASA experienced last December with internal sensors in the external fuel tank of the previous shuttle mission, the STS-122 flight of Atlantis (please see our previous entry "NASA Sets New Dates for Next Shuttle Launches" for more detail).

NASA and ESA hope this odd combination of missions will catch up their joint timelines for bringing the space station back to its construction schedule.

A bad day on MARS


Not the red planet, but rather the Monterey Accelerated Research System, an undersea observatory taking formâ''if haltinglyâ''in the icy depths of the Pacific Ocean some 32 kilometers off California's coast. Last month an ROV from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute installed the observatory's main science node at a depth of 900 meters. But when engineers threw the switch on the node's 10,000 volt power supply, they discovered a ground fault in the main underwater electrical plug connecting the node to shore.

The fault necessitated surfacing of the 2-ton package of electronics as well as the observatory's trawl-resistant steel frame, requiring a large ship and complex logistics. Replacing the plug and reinstalling the node will set the project back at least several months.

Spectrum readers will recognize this setback as simply one more sign of the inherent challenge of connecting high power and broadband information to deep-sea instrumentsâ''the subject of the 2005 Spectrum feature, "Neptune Rising", which profiled a family of U.S. and Canadian projects sharing engineering and components to create the world's most advanced remotely-operated and internet-connected underwater research stations. One piece of the programâ''VENUSâ''is delivering real-time data from relatively shallow installations off Vancouver Island in British Columbia, while the deeper MARS and NEPTUNE projects remain works in progress.

Power is a key challenge. As Neptune Rising was going to press in the fall of 2005 engineers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory were troubleshooting bugs in the sophisticated power supply they designed for MARSâ''a problem that would ultimately take another 14 months and a new engineering team at Alcatel to solve. Imagine the disappointment of the MARS team to be upended by a faulty plug after all that high-tech sweat and blood!

The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, in a communiqué issued last month, put the problems down to life on the cutting edge, quoting the words of David Packard (of Hewlett Packard fame) when he founded the institute in 1987. Packard apparently admonished the new institute's researchers to take risks and ask big questions. "Don't be afraid to make mistakes," said Packard. "If you don't make mistakes, you're not reaching far enough." Let's hope the National Science Foundation officials supporting MARS agree.

Photo credit: David Fierstein, MBARI

MIT to be tuition-free for nearly a third of students


The Massachusetts Institute of Technology announced yesterday a far-reaching financial aid program that will make it possible for nearly a third of MIT undergraduate students to have their tuition charges completely covered.

According to the program, which will take effect in the 2008-2009 academic year, MIT will be tuition-free for families earning less than US $75,000 a year. MIT will also provide grants to those students to cover expenses beyond tuition, helping them graduate free from loan debts.

The MIT move follows a major financial aid plan announced by Harvard late last year. It follows also a request by the U.S. Senate Finance Committee for detailed tuition, financial aid, and endowment information from the nationâ''s 136 wealthiest universities. (Here is MIT's response to the Senate request.)

The MIT initiative will increase the institute's financial aid budget to $74 million. Other details of the program (from the press release):

  • Families earning less than $75,000 a year will have all tuition covered. For parents with total annual income below $75,000 and typical assets, MIT will ensure that all tuition charges are covered with an MIT scholarship, federal and state grants, and/or outside scholarship funds. Nearly 30 percent of MIT students fall into this tuition-free category.

  • For families earning less than $75,000 a year, MIT will eliminate the student loan expectation. MIT will no longer expect students from families with total annual income below $75,000 and typical assets to take out loans to cover expenses beyond tuition. Under this provision, for example, students in this income group who participate in MIT's paid Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) each semester would be able to graduate debt-free.

  • For families earning less than $100,000, MIT will eliminate home equity in determining their need. In determining the ability to pay for college, MIT will no longer consider home equity for families with total annual income below $100,000 and typical assets. On average, this will reduce parental contributions by $1,600. For families who rent, rather than own a home, MIT will provide a comparable reduction in the expected parental contribution.

  • MIT will reduce student work-study requirements for all financial aid recipients. During the past decade, MIT has steadily lowered the amount it expects students to provide through term-time work. MIT will take a further step in this direction by reducing the work-study expectation for all financial aid recipients by an additional 10 percent.
  • PS: The good news was accompanied by this not-so-good news: "Tuition and fees for the upcoming academic year will increase 4 percent to $36,390." MIT claims that "this figure represents less than half of what it costs MIT to educate an undergraduate," and that the Institute is "increasing funds available for financial aid this year at a far greater rate than the rise in tuition." But then again, the question is: And how fast is MIT's $10 billion endowment growing?

    PPS: On a related note, speaking of tuition-free engineering colleges in the Boston area, let's not forget about the Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering, in Needham, Mass., about which I wrote a long feature titled "The Olin Experiment" and a follow-up blog post. I've been accused of having a bit of a crush on Olin, and I admit, I do admire this great little school. :)

    Gloomy genetics company casts cloud over personal genomics prospects

    chromosomes2.jpgThereâ''s some unexpected news coming from DeCode Genetics, the nifty Icelandic company that tests fragments of your inner cheek for genetic markers of diabetes, prostrate cancer, concerns of the heart, and more. The company is scaling back its workforce by 15 percent, ostensibly triggered by an unexpected market downturn. â''It would even be wise for other companies in our community to follow our example,â'' says Kari Stefansson, the companyâ''s CEOâ''and Iâ''m assuming that by community he doesnâ''t mean Rejkjavik.

    So is this merely a hiccup, or a sign of larger problems on the road to personalized medicine? DeCode, the Google-backed 23andMe, and a Massachussetts-based company called Knome all launched whole genome scans in November 2007, so the field is extremely young. The blog Eye On DNA thoroughly dissects Stefanssonâ''s comments and the outlook for DeCode and its â''communityâ''â''namely, 23andMe, Knome, and a couple others. In short, itâ''s not entirely clear what caused this unexpected market shift, but itâ''s worrying given how far the price of genome scans must fall before it becomes a viable option for people other than millionaires and celebrities of the science world.

    For those with cash to spare, the going rate is $350 000, which was what biotechnology entrepreneur Dan Stoicesku paid Knome when in January he became the second person to pay to have his entire genetic code sequenced. The first, apparently, was a customer picked up by Knomeâ''s Beijing-based partner company.

    A March 4 story in The New York Times quotes Stoicesku as saying heâ''d rather have a more clear picture of his health profile than buy a Bentley.

    Right. Soâ'¿. itâ''s not quite the $1000 genome. Or as the Times relates it,

    â''I was in someoneâ''s Bentley once â'' nice car,â'' said James D. Watson, the co-discoverer of the structure of DNA, whose genome was sequenced last year by a company that donated the $1.5 million in costs to demonstrate its technology. â''Would I rather have my genome sequenced or have a Bentley? Uh, toss up.â''

    But itâ''s not all doom and gloom in the genomics world. Earlier this week, Google announced that it had invested an unspecified amount in the Personal Genome Project, a plan by George Church of Harvard University to create a database of 100,000 subjectsâ'' sequences of protein-coding DNA segments correlated with health histories and body features. This investment marks the third large, public move by Google into the medical space. First came its $3.9 million investment in 23andMe, and in February the search giant and the Cleveland Clinic teamed up to improve the management of electronic health records.

    Nor is all genomics news sensible: a March 5 BBC story covers the debate over exhuming Galileoâ''s body to scan his DNA for the genetic roots of his blindness. The story doesn't put a price on revealing Galileo's ocular misfortunes, but in this case, Iâ''d rather have the Bentley.


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