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Scientists find a way to make airplanes "greener"

Lighten the weight of its wings and an airplane immediately becomes more fuel efficient. Researchers at Delft University in the Netherlands, along with collaborators at aluminium giant Alcoa and GTM Advanced Structures, have redesigned airplane wings so that they are made up like a sandwich. The central layer is a strong mesh of fibers laminated with metal; on either side lies a thick aluminium layer. Not only does this create a light, robust wing, the resulting structure is also insensitive to metal fatigue, which plagues wings made just of aluminium. Besides, the new wings are stronger than the carbon fiber reinforced plastic wings that have recently been used in aircraft such as the Boeing 787. The researchers estimate that using their new "green" design allows a weight reduction of about 20 per cent compared to the Boeing 787. They translate this to a worldwide fuel and maintenance savings of $100 billion for the airline industry.

 

 

 

Bobby Fischer Dies

 

 

 

 

Credit: Chris Lott

 

 

Robert J. Fischer has died, apparently of kidney failure, in Reykjavik, Iceland. This is the city where he had won fame in 1972 by defeating Boris Spassky to become World Chess Champion, the only American to do so in modern times. Three years later, Fischer refused to defend his title and became a recluse. He emerged only in 1992 to win a return match against Spassky, then long past his prime.

 

Because Fischer played that match in war-torn Yugoslavia, in defiance of a U.S. economic embargo, and because he refused to pay income taxes on the money heâ¿¿d won, he became a man without a country, sojourning in Hungary, the Philippines, Japan and other places. After September 11, 2001, he added insult to injury by cheering on al Qaeda, a move that may have induced U.S. diplomats to intensify their pursuit of him. He was run to ground in Japan in 2004, where he eluded extradition to the U.S. only at the last minute, when Iceland granted him citizenship and thus the right of domicile.

 

Many former fans, seeking to retain a shred of their image of Bobby, as he was universally known, excused his behavior on the ground heâ¿¿d lost his mind. The cited his frequent anti-Semitic outbursts, made though Fischerâ¿¿s late mother (and perhaps his father, as well) were themselves Jews. On the other hand, Fischer had been giving vent to such opinions since his adolescence. Also, although he had always shown signs of paranoia (which is not uncommon among grandmasters), his mind remained clear on the things that mattered to him.

 

Readers of this blog will be interested to know that in 1989 Fischer took out the patent for a computerized device, called the Fischer Clock, that has since changed the way the game is played. With each move completed, the clock adds a designated number of seconds to a playerâ¿¿s allotted thinking time, ensuring that no one need lose a clearly drawn position for sheer lack of time to physically make the moves. Fischer also patented FischerRandom chess, in which a computer sets up the initial position randomly (albeit under certain constraints). That way, no player can derive unfair advantage from pre-game opening preparation.

 

Both innovations were meant, in part, to counter the influence of computers on human players. Interestingly, the remedies themselves depend on computers. Spectrum has chronicled both the success of computer chess programs versus Gary Kasparov and what human players can do to try to fight back.

So much for his life. (It's also worth checking out Paul Hoffman's take on the chess hero) Now let me tell you what it meant to players like me. I got into the game as a freshman in high school, in 1969. That was just before Bobby, as he was universally known, had begun his final ascent to the championship. Suddenly, it was cool to play chess.

 

We players were proud that Fischer had won the respect of millions of non-players, from with President Nixon on down, and that his example had converted tens of thousands of people to the game. Such newbies swelled the tournament halls, raising prize funds to Las Vegas standards and enriching formerly threadbare masters. The â¿¿Fischer Boomâ¿¿ had begun.

 

I well remember the transformation of the chess club in my hometown of Chicago. When I first attended it, it was a second-floor dive in a dicey part of the Loop, defined by the curving route of the cityâ¿¿s elevated train, whose ear-splitting screech did not so much as register with the 50-odd men bending over their chessboards. After Fischerâ¿¿s success, the club removed to far plusher digs, in the LaSalle Hotel, where the resident masters at last began to eat and dress like human beings.

 

Then Bobby turned his back on the game, and the club faded again. When I visited it last, in 1978, it was in accommodations even worse than those it had started in. The few masters who still visited there looked hungry. Although the rest of the world continued to play chess, but in America it suffered a decline from which it is only now emerging.

 

It had all happened before, in the 1850s, when a 21-year-old Louisianian named Paul Morphy went to Europe and crushed its best players. Like Fischer, Morphy was without peer; he developed in isolation from the best players; he had an encyclopedic â¿¿bookâ¿¿ knowledge of the game; he was feted by the press and by the grandees of the day; he quit at the height of his fame; he exhibited signs of eccentricity verging on madness. Morphy, though trained as a lawyer, never practiced, but lived out his bachelor existence on an inheritance, refusing ever to speak of chess.

 

No such towering player can ever come again, for chess is no longer what it was. Fischer is part of the reason for the change, because he set a new standard that all serious players thenceforth had to meet. It was an inhuman regimen of work, which he began at the age of seven at the cost of school, family and friends. He would not allow himself even the smallest luxury if it interfered with his goals. Once, when a tournament sponsor offered him the hotel room with the best view, Fischer refused it in favor of a windowless cell.

 

â¿¿All I want to do, ever,â¿¿ he had said as a child, â¿¿is play chess.â¿¿ Gary Kasparov, todayâ¿¿s leading player, has called him â¿¿a centaur if you will, a synthesis between man and chess.â¿¿

 

Before Fischer, many world-class players had followed a professionâ¿¿Mikhail Botvinnik, world champion in the 1950s, was an electrical engineer; Max Euwe, champion in the late 1930s, was a mathematician. Todayâ¿¿s top players are players for as long as they hope to competeâ¿¿and nothing more.

 

A few years ago, Fischer derided todayâ¿¿s young grandmasters for their excessive reliance on computer chess programs and game databases, which allow a player to keep up with millions of games, including those played this morning in another part of the world. He joked that they all had to wear glasses because theyâ¿¿d spent so much time staring at computer screens. But Fischer would have done the same, only more so. As it was, he had one of the largest private chess libraries, and he subscribed to scores of chess journals in many languages, Russian above all.

 

Fischer did face a computer once. He played a Kingâ¿¿s Gambit against the MIT program and defeated it with ease; afterwards, he said computer chess would never get anywhere until chess masters began to work on the programs, alongside engineers. That was in 1978. Nineteen years later, Gary Kasparov lost a match against IBMâ¿¿s chess machine, Deep Blue, the first such machine to have been exhaustively tunedâ¿¿or trained?â¿¿by grandmasters.

 

Fischer was aged 64â¿¿the number of squares on a chessboard.

 

--P.R.

 

 

For other Spectrum articles about game-playing machines, see:

 

â¿¿Cracking Goâ¿¿ on efforts to defeat a still more complex game, from Asia.

 

and

 

â¿¿Checkers, Solved!â¿¿ on the proof that checkers, properly played, must always end in a draw,

Taser Use Leads to Another Fatality

While the stun gun has been immensely successful in lowering the number of fatalities in confrontations between law enforcement officers and those suspected of criminal behavior, its record is far from perfect. In recent times, use of the most popular brand of the weapon, the Taser, has created an ongoing controversy. Now, add another black mark to its record.

The Pioneer Press of Minneapolis/St. Paul reports that Minnesota State Patrol officers attempting to subdue an "uncooperative" motorist involved in a traffic accident yesterday used a Taser on him and that he subsequently died.

The fatality in Minnesota cannot as yet be attributed to use of the Taser (an autopsy is pending), but the circumstances seem to point in its direction. This undoubtedly will add more fuel to the debate over the role of stun guns in the administration of non-lethal force by the police.

Although "Don't tase me, bro!" made headlines in 2007 as the year's top quote in the "Yale Book of Quotations" for reasons that border on the farcical, there is nothing humorous about the recent string of deadly encounters in which a Taser was used by police and other officials in the exercise of their duties.

To investigate the safety of Taser use, this publication last month ran a feature on the controversial stun gun, "How a Taser Works". In it, Associate Editor Sandra Upson framed the debate as follows:

Even if Tasers are proven to be entirely safe, there's the bigger question of whether the stun guns encourage police brutality. A Taser shock leaves almost no visible scarring or bruising, as a clubbing or a beating typically would. Could the absence of physical scars lift a psychological restraint on officer behavior? Should every Taser gun have a built-in video camera?

Equipping law-enforcement services with Tasers is likely to reduce the number of bullets officers fire from their handguns and therefore the number of serious injuries and deaths. At the same time, it may lead police to inflict an unwarranted amount of pain on individuals who commit only minor crimes.

She then turned the podium over to two experts to share their knowledge of the weapon's use with our audience. Mark W. Kroll, an IEEE senior member who holds more than 250 U.S. patents and sits on the board of Taser International, looked at the problem from an engineering perspective. And Patrick Tchou, a cardiologist who specializes in treating cardiac rhythm disturbances at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio, examined the matter from the biomedical point of view.

Whilw they could not resolve the debate over the relative safety of the Taser as a non-lethal deterrent in potentially dangerous circumstances, their insights are instructive.

The bottom line when it comes to the Taser in law enforcement, our authors suggest, is that much more research is needed. That may be a shopworn phrase when it comes to controversial technical topics, but it sounds like an earnest plea to fellow engineers, scientists, and doctors in this case. All of us should be interested in what such future research could reveal. It is, after all, a matter of life and death.

Computer scientists on the red carpet: Academy Awards recognize advances in fluid simulation

The upcoming 2007 Academy Awards, besides recognizing great actors and directors, are recognizing a few great computer scientists. Their award-winning opus? Fluid simulation.

On Feb 9th in Los Angeles, the Academy will present scientific and technical awards to Ron Fedkiw, a Stanford University professor, and Nick Rasmussen and Frank Losasso Petterson of Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) for the development of ILMâ''s Fluid Simulation System; and Doug Roble, Nafees Bin Zafar, and Ryo Sakaguchi at Digital Domain for the development of that companyâ''s Fluid Simulation System. All will receive Academy Plaques at a black tie event honoring the many scientists, engineers, and technicians who work behind the scenes in the movie industry.

Fedkiwâ''s work started a few years ago, in an effort to model the female liquid terminator in Terminator 3, and, soon after, simulated the wine drunk by the pirate skeleton in Pirates of the Caribbean. Fedkiw explained to Spectrum that the Navier-Stokes equations traditionally used to dictate how a fluid behaves are very complex, and when using them exclusively, limited computer resources can lead to errors. But when people look at water, they are seeing the surface, not its internal movement; the most important part of the model is not the fluid itself, but the interface between two fluids, water and air. Typically moviemakers donâ''t model the entire body of water, but rather focus on the fluid just below the surface; this is called the â''level setâ'' method. Fedkiwâ''s â''particle level setâ'' method instead uses some particles on each side of the surface, some air, some water. This information can correct errors made by the level set method, or, if those errors become too severe, take over as the main representation of the fluid. The particle set method turned out to be particularly useful for representing phenomena that are combinations of air and water, like spray and bubbles. The video above demonstrates the technique.

These days, Fedkiw is applying his approach, that is, developing new techniques for tying together disparate physical phenomena, to new problems: like the

coupling of highly rigid and highly deformable substances, for example, where flesh meets bone in the human body.

â''While good methods for simulating bones and joints exist, and likewise for soft tissue and muscle, typical simulations calculate skeletal motion first and then the skeleton drives the outer deformable layer without feedback,â'' says Fedkiw. â''That is, if you punched a simulated human in the stomach, it would not cause the skeleton to bend over.

â''Working on this problem for the last five years with zero progress has felt like being punched in the gut.â''

Last year, Fedkiw says, â''One lucky afternoon it all made sense.â'' He and his graduate students have been designing simple creatures that interact with each other and the environment, like snakes and worms. Theyâ''re also working on simulating the interaction between solids and fluids, like cloth being dipped in water. Combining the two projects, theyâ''ve simulated a fish with an internal bone structure flopping around in water. Theyâ''ll be trying that with a simulated human next.

Life-building organic molecules found in a distant galaxy

Astronomers from Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico have found the organic molecules hydrogen cyanide and methanimine in Arp 220, a galaxy that lies about 250 million light years away. The discovery is noteworthy because the two molecules are among the basic ingredients of life. When methanimine and hydrogen cyanide are combined with water, the amino acid glycine is formed. This is the farthest ever that these molecules have been seen. The astronomers chose Arp 220, an ultra-luminous galaxy, because it seems to be forming new stars at a very high rate. They used the 305-metre diameter Arecibo radio telescope, the world's largest and most sensitive, to observe the galaxy at different frequencies. Different molecules have unique radio frequencies associated with them, much like human beings have unique fingerprints.

"The fact that we can observe these substances at such a vast distance means that there are huge amounts of them in Arp 220," said Emmanuel Momjian, a former Arecibo astronomer, now at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Socorro, New Mexico. "It is indeed very intriguing to find that the ingredients of life appear in large quantities where new stars and planets are born."

CES Video Highlights: Bug Labs Lets You Build Your Own Gadget

Even though they had a tiny booth at CES, Bug Labs seemed to strike a nerve. In addition to winning CNET's Best of CES Award for emerging technologies, the Bug team excited the crowd with the promise of one gadget to replace the ever increasing menagerie of devices on exhibit elsewhere at the show. Steven Cherry has already discussed why open source hardware is so revolutionary, but its best to just see the Bug for yourself. We talked first to Mehrshad Mansouri, who gave an overview of the device and showed off some of its initial possibilities:

Next up was Bug Labs' Jeremy Toeman, who explained how the bug base, modules, and software actually work together, and what sort of engineering challenges faced the team:

The Bug may not be the smallest or most attractive device out there, but it's as close as you'll come to one that's future proof. Do you think open source gadgets can become as successful as open source software? Let us know what you'd want your dream gadget to be able to do.

Get Your Broadband Fix on Route 66

The convergence of car culture and Internet culture was one of the more interesting themes at last week's Consumer Electronics Show, where Spectrum associate editor Josh Romero and I demo'd Sync, Ford's answer to GM's Onstar. Josh's excellent videoblog entry, here, goes through the features.

As it turns out, Sync, which is in some ways a step up from Onstar, may itself be leapfrogged by new developments at Chrysler.

One lacuna in Sync, which was written by Microsoft, is that it uses a one-way (satellite) communication's link. In his blog, Josh complained that "Instead of getting Sync software updates through the Travel Link connection, Ford owners will have to download it onto a USB stick at their computer first, and then physically carry it to the car."

And in a separate blog entry last week, "Ford in Sync, But Out of Step," I generally took Ford and Microsoft to task for the one-way connection. I asked Ford's product development manager Gary Jablonski, who gave us the demo, whether he regretted that Sprint's new Xohm network wasn't available for Sync. Jablonski gave a diplomatic non-answer: We're happy with the system we have.

Xohm would give cars a true, two-way broadband connection to the Internet — basically, it would be having DSL on the highways and byways of North America. Sprint is building the Xohm network throughout this year and next; Chicago, Washington D.C., and Baltimore are slated to have it by April. Spectrum deemed the Xohm build-out a winning project in Spectrum's January Winners & Losers 2008 issue.

As it turns out, Chrysler may end up with what we could call third-mover advantage. t the Detroit Auto Show this week, the company announced that it is building WiMax into their cars and will use it as the basis of their own in-vehicle navigation/weather/safety/etc. system, according to the blog Wimaxday.

And as if in answer to Josh's complaint that firmware updates require a manual operation via the car's USB port, Chrysler said,

Amongst the most compelling applications for this new communications system is the integration of wireless connectivity to the on-board computer of an automobile that will provide for â''remote vehicle computer updatingâ'' and eventually self-diagnostics.

Chrysler's announcement doesn't make any mention of Xohm. There may of course be a formal arrangement to come. Sprint spokesperson Jeff Chaltas had no comment when I asked him about that. But Xohm is a bring-your-own-device network, and you can buy service by day, month, or megabyte.

Any WiMax-certified device should work on Xohm, and you can bet that with millions of potential customers at stake, Sprint will make sure that Chrysler's cars can connect to the network. Sprint's business model is expected to let you certify several devices as being yours if you subscribe by the month. Your laptop, your Blackberry, your iPod.... and maybe soon your car.

Speaking only for myself, there are few features that would bind me to one car manufacturer over another. But true broadband on an open, ubiquitous network is probably one of them.

After Long Delay, Electricity Flows from al Quds Power Station in Baghdad

Field notes from Spectrum executive editor Glenn Zorpette, now on assignment in Iraq:

1-15-08

Traveled to the al Quds power station today from the Green Zone. I made that same trip two and a half years ago and the experience became the lead of the story I wrote about electrical reconstruction. â''We had an incident, the engineer tells me.â''

Today we didn't have an incident, and that fact seemed to pleasantly surprise the handful of Army Corps of Engineers officers and civilians on the trip. The territory between the Green Zone and Quds (or, as the military insists on calling it, Qudas) has become somewhat more dangerous in the last couple of years. The trip to Quds is always a bit of a risk; it goes through dense, urban territory in north Baghdad, with lots of tall buildings and alleyway escape routes lining the travel route. There are many choke points, check points, and traffic tie ups.

About a mile past the checkpoint out of the Green Zone, we saw a young man in a red hooded sweatshirt, standing on a high concrete platform, looking at us, waving a black flag and looking in a different direction, and then looking at us again. Look at armored convoy, wave black flag, look at armored convoy, wave black flag. I'm not a security expert but I didn't think that was good. The Navy Commander who is the executive officer of the Army Corps division in charge of Quds seemed fairly sure we were going to get hit. He's survived more than a dozen IED attacks so I figured his judgment is probably pretty good on this subject. But we weren't hit. Blissfully event-free.

I was reassured, sort of, by the fact that this time we were in Revas vehicles, rather than in armored Toyota Land Cruisers, which is what we were in last time. The Revas are made in South Africa. They have a V-shaped hull to deflect an IED blast outward, and

they're much higher off the ground than humvees. They also have level 6B armor. I have no idea what that is. But the security team leader, from Aegis, said it in a way that was clearly meant to be reassuring. So I took that cue. The Revas also have two canopies on the roof where gunners get a very good look at the surrounding situation.

So we made it to Quds, and I saw dozens of diesel fuel trucks, and I knew what that meant. They got the LM6000 turbines running! Or at least a couple of them, anyway. In one of the lousier decisions of Iraqi electrical reconstruction, somebody decided to put four GE LM6000 turbines at Quds. LM6000s like natural gas, or highly pure diesel fuel. Neither is available at Quds.

The diesel fuel they've been trucking in is fairly crummy, and the LMs haven't run much so far. But lately they've gotten either better fuel or figured out how to operate the plant's fuel filters, so two of the four LM6000s are running, and adding about 150 megawatts to Baghdad's power supply. Last time I was there, none of them were running. It was starting to look like none of them were ever going to run.

It's good news that two of the turbines are running, but the bad news is that just those two units consume diesel fuel about as fast as it can be brought to the plant. There were about 35 tanker trucks in a queue that snaked all around the Quds facility today (the line can't go outside the facility because it's not really safe out there). Those 35 trucks hold one day's worth of fuel for the two turbines, I was told.

One of the Corps of Engineers assistant site managers, from Roswell, New Mexico, was surprised earlier that day when her Iraqi workers slaughtered a lamb to celebrate some milestone in an ongoing expansion project to add two more turbine-generators to the Quds facility.

Let me digress a bit here to say there's some machine gun fire that's pretty audible now outside. There have been about half a dozen short bursts. I suspect it's some sort of training, because I'm on the Victory Base Complex, surrounded by miles and miles of blast walls, razor wire, checkpoints, and countless other security measures.

Back to that Navy commander who is the executive officer of the Corps of Engineers group that oversees Quds, the guy who survived all those IED attacks. He survived those attacks while traveling through extremely dangerous territory to construction sites where Iraqi workers were building health clinics, with Corps funding, for women and children in Iraq. One of the IEDs that hit him was an EFP, an explosively formed penetrator, a particularly dreaded form of IED. It forms a heavy projectile of semimolten metal that travels at speeds great enoughâ''more than twice the speed of a rifle round--to penetrate armor. I've seen the holes it leaves in armorâ''they're like the clean, perfect holes that Bugs Bunny used to leave in the cartoons, rabbit ears and all.

He and the other people in his vehicle survived that EFP attack, but they were all gravely injured. He had to be airlifted to Germany and he needed 600 internal stitches to stop his internal bleeding. And then he came back here.

I asked him why. He said it was because of the feeling he got when he saw women and children using the health clinics he set up. Yeah, go ahead and call that mawkish. But only after you've earned the right to do so by surviving a horrendous EFP hit.

--GZ

Environmentalists engage in the absurd concerning nanotech with a hope of the sublime in the future

The UK-based Soil Association announced via a Financial Times article that they would not certify any products as organic if they contain additives â''made by the burgeoning nanotechnology industryâ'', despite the fact that the Soil Associationâ''s policy manager, Gundula Azeez, said the nano ban would not affect any products.

Tim Harper, noted UK nanotechnology analyst, through his TNTLog, revealed this for the unintentional self-parody that it is. With Harper commenting, â''Why on earth nanotech has been singled out is a mystery. Itâ''s akin to announcing that a synthetic chemical such as paracetamol will not be certified as natural.â''

Barnaby Feder at his â''Bits Blogâ'' in the New York Times was equally incredulous of this rather strange announcement. But Feder added the qualification that these kinds of announcements are somehow a natural outcropping of many NGOâ''s frustration over the lack of government activities in determining the toxicity of nanoparticles.

Maybe so. Frustration makes lots of people do silly things. But I canâ''t see how this helps anybody or anything. It further marginalizes environmental concerns about nanoparticles by making their positions seem absurd, and it doesnâ''t motivate the powers-that-be (whoever they are) to take any action.

All in all this is just foolish grandstanding.

A Tear in the Internet Big Enough to Drive a Pushpin Through

The weekly public radio program â''On The Mediaâ'' had another great show last Saturday, as usual, except for its story on the Internetâ''s domain name system. The occasion was nominally the grudging acceptance by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, or ICANN, of new top-level domains for non-Roman alphabets, specifically Chinese and Cyrillic ones. In reality, the OTM story was inspired by a confused story in the UK paper The Guardian, â''Kremlin eyes internet control ...,â'' back on 3 January.

On the Media presented a single â''expert,â'' Tim Wu, who is a lawyer and academician, not a network engineer or scientist, and one known for iconclastic views, to put it mildly. Worse, OTM host Brooke Gladstone let him assert without further questioning that having multiple alphabets or multiple root servers could fracture the Internet. If youâ''re not going to present an alternative view, Brooke, you have to at least ask how the one causes the other. It may seem obvious it will, but it isnâ''t. And it may not be true.

Worse still, for On The Media, China already has the equivalent of an alternative root, and it hasnâ''t fractured the Internet. And lastly, the ICANN method for handling alternative alphabetsâ''which has already been approved by the Internet Engineering Task Force as the standard way of doing itâ''would to some extent do away with the need for the alternative Chinese root server. So it would heal any potential Internet breach, not create one.

Not that alternative root servers are such a big deal anyway. The fact is, weâ''ve had them for a long time. I first wrote about them in January 2001 ("Internet Name Game Gets Serious"), and they werenâ''t new even then. I presented arguments that alternative roots were, indeed, a potential problem, and described the two ways they could be. I didnâ''t believe it was likely to prove a real problem then and I donâ''t think it is one now.

The potential problems are these. First, domains accessible only via an alternative root may not be findable by the mainstream users, who service providers who access only the main root system, the one blessed by ICANN.

Second is the potential for ambiguity in resolving an Internet address. If both the main root system and the alternative root system support their own .biz domains, for example, a name like onthemedia.biz could resolve to two different Internet protocol addresses, depending on which root system was queried.

This second problem is potentially serious, but in practice one rootâ''s domain will win and the other will lose. Thatâ''s what happened in 2001 when ICANN created its own .biz domain. The existing one, an already-not-very-popular five-year-old domain run by Atlantic Root Network Inc., quickly faded into disuse.

The first problem has never been a serious one in theory or practice. The first thing to note is that a root server resolves very few queries, relatively speaking. Domain name records, which are what associate a domain name and an Internet protocol address, donâ''t change very often, and service providers cache the most common ones.

Queries that canâ''t be resolved by the cache go on to the service providerâ''s domain name server, and then to that of the entity from whom the service provider gets its Internet feed from. Only if a query canâ''t be resolved by such a chain does it end up at the root server (or one of its twelve mirrors). The root server does only one thing: look at the tail portion of the problematic domain nameâ''.com, .org, .uk, .cn, etc.â''and say what organization is responsible for it. Then the query goes back down a chain of name resolutions, reading the domain name dot-by-dot from right to left, until the entity is found that actually assigned the complete domain name to an IP address.

Typically, the companies that run alternative root server issue software patches for Internet service providers and for end-users (either patching the operating system or the browser) that redirect domain name references about their domains to their own domain name servers.

According to Milton Mueller of Syracuse University, who has written a book about the domain name system, thatâ''s pretty much what the Chinese do for Chinese character domain names right now. The Chinese have created a Chinese character equivalent for .com, .net, and .cn. If youâ''re inside China and, say, try to look up a web page with one of these non-Roman endings, a domain name query goes directly to the root server in charge of that top-level domain. Outside China, the patch slaps â''.cnâ'' in ASCII onto the domain name. That forces the query to be sent to the entity that runs the alternative root domains, because itâ''s the same organization that runs the the .cn root server (the ASCII one). Those queries, in other words, get resolved as second-level domain queries, not at the root level. This is not exactly a fracturing of the net. In fact, the point of the patch is the ensure that the net remains unified and that the existing domain name server system doesnâ''t need to change the way it does things.

The solution that ICANN is testing is even more benign than this. Domain names will be translated into a ASCII code that domain name servers will use to do their own internal lookup. Roman alphabet domain names donâ''t have to be translated, though they can be. Non-Roman alphabet domain names will always be translated. This method has already been endorsed in IETF standards documents known as RFCs. ICANN is testing it to make sure that it works in the real world.

Thatâ''s the big change taking place. A name lookup will now take a domain name server another step, and presumably another nanosecond to resolve. Now, Tim and Brooke, how exactly will that fracture the net?

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