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Iron Man

After Dan Whaley sold his travel website for $750 million in 2000, he spent his time and money exploring the world. He biked solo across the U.S.  He lived with Tibetan refugees in Nepal.   He drove from California to Argentina.  Now he's on a new mission that combines his passions: saving the world…by geo-engineering it.

Whaley's start-up, Climos, is spearheading a program to remove CO2 from the atmosphere through a process called Ocean Iron Fertilization. The idea is to add iron to iron-limited parts of the ocean in order to facilitate the growth of phytoplankton, which absorbs CO2.  Climos already has the backing of heavy-hitter venture capitalists and scientists from the National Science Foundation to Elon Musk, co-founder of PayPal. Some say it's bad - if not crazy - science.  A Greenpeace ocean specialist calls the plan "dangerous and irresponsible." Others say it must be taken seriously. 

Whaley is the guy at the center of all this, and oceanography is in his genes.  His chief science officer at Climos is his mother, Dr. Margaret Leinen, formerly the assistant Director for Geosciences at the National Science Foundation.   A autodidactic computer programmer, Whaley coded one of the first software systems to detect reversals of the earth's magnetic pole in cryogenically cooled deep-sea sediment samples for the University of Rhode Island's Graduate School of Oceanography. He has also participated in two NSF-funded Joint Global Ocean Flux Study cruises in the Equatorial Pacific where he helped run a piston-coring apparatus to obtain seafloor samples along the Tahiti-Hawaii transect.

Based in San Francisco, Whaley’s now traveling the world meeting with scientists and regulators to pave the way for ocean fertilization.  But the road is already littered with the one other start-up that went down this path.   A couple months before Climos launched, an ocean-seeding start-up called Planktos suspended its project citing “a highly effective disinformation campaign waged by anti-offset crusaders [that] has provoked widespread opposition to plankton restoration in the environmental world.”  While Planktos failed to raise funds, Whaley has already secured $3.5 million.  His success comes in no small part to his family’s background, his Silicon Valley contacts, and his persuasive skills.  “It’s about science first, but it’s also about perception, and people have to really trust that you’re trying to do this in the right way,” he says. “Part of how they think about science has to do with how they feel about the way you’re going about things.”   The first project is aimed for the southern oceans, mostly likely near Argentina, Brazil, or Australia.

Topsy's Twitter Search Now Finds Photos and Text

Like several start-up search engines that offer third party Twitter search, Topsy used to find just the web links shared via Twitter, rather than returning actual content from tweets.

That changed yesterday with Topsy's launch of several new features that offer photo search and regular tweet content search.

From TechCrunch:

Before now, if you ran a search for “Google Buzz”, the site would return links to articles and videos about the new service. Now, it will also surface tweets from influential Twitter users, even if they don’t include a link. That’s important for breaking news when a story may not have already been covered by a publication, or when there’s a tweet that’s important in and of itself (say, Bill Gates’ first tweet). 

The new features will also allow photo search based on the text of tweets that contain photo links, and will let users see what's trending in web links, photos, and tweet content.

Topsy's algorithms rank the relevance of tweets and filter out less influential ones, according to TechCrunch:

The links are ranked by the number of times they’ve been retweeted, and also by the influence of the people who have tweeted them; the site actually keeps track of the number of retweets each user typically gets to establish their overall reputation.

That's a technique that major search engines are still trying to perfect as they roll out real-time search features.

Read IEEE Spectrum's report on the progress with real-time search.

All the Processing, Half the Power

Last August, IEEE Spectrum ran a feature article by researchers from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor and ARM Holdings in Cambridge, England, who reported their work aimed at marshaling all of a microprocessor’s abilities, leaving hardly any reserve. They discussed sophisticated fault-monitoring techniques that allow chips to operate close to the point at which performance-harming timing errors start to crop up. Computer makers, they said, would soon be able to skirt the razor’s edge of chip reliability by correcting for the occasional error while overclocking a chip to boost processing speed or while running it on much less power in order to gain more energy efficiency.

On 9 February, the Michigan-ARM team stepped forward with a game-changing announcement. The researchers presented a paper at the International Solid State circuits conference (ISScc) reporting that they used fault monitoring and a group of complementary energy-saving techniques--such as shutting off the clock signal in the regions of the chip that aren’t crunching numbers--to maintain the performance and reliability of a 1-GHz chip running on 52 percent less power than it’s rated for. 

Solar Tech in Africa

I've been following some interesting developments in green tech, using solar power, in Africa.   First to Mali.  This West African nation is famous for its extreme poverty and brutally hot Saharan plains near Timbuktu.  But a small group of volunteer geeks made it famous for something else:  green radio.  

Based in the capital city of Bamako, IESC Geekcorps, a sort of Peace Corps for techies, is building 11 solar-powered radio stations in northern Mali.   The goal is to use solar energy to build specific equipment able to use low-power.  Their solution is ingeniously scrappy, and effective.  The team built a 150 watt transmitter from scratch, powered by just six batteries and six solar panels.  With a 40 foot mast, the transmitter can broadcast as much as 30 miles, and it’s rugged enough to set up in even the most hostile desert conditions.  The Geekcorps Mali is also applying its start-up chops to building a rural computer center, powered by just one solar battery and solar panel and using a measly 20 watts.   By choosing the equipment and focalizing on an adapted technology they used less energy than other commercial solutions.

In Ghana, the green lantern isn’t a superhero, it’s an innovative way to bring environment-friendly lighting to the neediest of people.  With roughly 40% of the population off a power grid, many residents have had to rely on high-polluting and relatively high-cost kerosene lamps for light.  But the country has become a shining example of a craft solution:   inexpensive photovoltaic lamps. 

A small engineering company in Accra called Deng Limited has been expertly training dealers and technicians to install systems around the region.  The small lamps are easily assembled using tiny modules that store up electricity using sunlight, and last for as long as three years.  More than 6000 solar lanterns are now in use, and the company runs a training center to help keep up the action.   Their work scored them an Ashden Award for Sustainable Energy, presented by Al Gore.   Some in Ghana – as well as surrounding areas such as Kenya and Rwanda – are going further by distributing kits with which residents can build their own solar lighting.  A group called the Solar Panel Project provides the essentials – including the light emitting diode, the circuit board, and chips – and the residents use household vessels, from coffee cans to plastic bottles, to house the parts. 

Chew On This! A Hearing Aid For Your Mouth.

A company in California is developing a hearing aid that will attach to the upper molars and transmit sound through a patient's jaw.

The SoundBite, as it's called, has two components. The first, a small microphone sitting in the ear canal, records vibrations that it relays to a transmitter resting on back of the ear. These two pieces are attached by a small transparent wire. The second part of the device clamps onto the back of the top row of teeth like an acrylic mold. A receiver detects signals from the transmitter behind the ear and converts them into vibrations strong enough to carry through the teeth and jaw, but weak enough that the wearer can't consciously feel them.

In a healthy person, air vibrations travel down the inner ear and create patterned disturbances in air pressure that in turn disturb the fluid of the cochlea. Little hair-like cells ( cells) respond to the fluctuations as a spectrum, which the brain then sorts and deciphers as the audible frequencies of sound. The process is one of the most elegant in the body and utilizes the smallest bones in our body. (Take a look!) Tiny, tiny structures convert air vibrations, to fluctuations in air pressure, to wave patterns in fluid, to electrical impulses.

A bone conductive hearing aid, such as the SoundBite, essentially does the same thing, but sends the information through different material. Vibrations ultimately arrive at the cochlea and cause waves patterns in the inner ear, but they get there through surrounding bone (the ear is essentially encased in bone). They are an alternative hearing aid most useful to patients who have ear deformities or infections restricting them from wearing a conventional device.

One of the main problems with bone conductive hearing aids has been keeping them anchored to the bone. The latest approach to doing this has been to surgically implant the hearing aid into the bone surrounding the ear.

SoundBite seems to be an attempt to circumvent the need for surgery, and indeed devises a reversible solution. But there are a lot of other problems that I imagine surfacing when we invite technology into our mouths. Images show that the device hides almost completely in the back of your mouth. So, great. That solves some cosmetic concerns. But what about eating? What about talking? What about keeping it clean? What about talking to, and hearing, your dentist while you're getting a root canal?

Also, people already report poorer sound quality with bone conductive hearing aids than with air conductive ones. Will the quality further deteriorate when the vibrations are coming all the way from the teeth and jaw bone?

As always, clinical trials will be the only way to find out, and the company, Sonitus Medical, is just beginning with that.

Is Apple's iEmpire in Danger as Google's Chrome OS Tablet Prepares to Face the iPad?

It may be easy to get lost in the hype about the iPad, but many other companies have prototype tablet PCs in the works, and this year CES was a crawling with them. Unlike the unveiling of the iPod when the rest of the tech industry was caught by surprise, mobile computing companies were ready with their own challengers to the iPad. So will Apple and the iPad rule, or is it time for someone else become the pusher of our tech fix?

In 2001 Apple released the iPod, making it a revolutionary year in consumer electronics . Apple began to turn things around, embracing design, making tech cool and, most importantly of all, making relatively complicated computer technology available to the masses.

Now, it appears that 2010 might be the year of Google. The company's support of open source software might become Apple's undoing, and the concept photos and video of a Chromium powered tablet PC look to make it a challenger to the iPad.

Anything you can do, we can do better.

Google’s market strategy has been almost the exact opposite of Apple’s.

Apple has been an authoritarian voice, trying to control every aspect of their products and the related technology. A proprietary operating system, the final word on iPhone apps (Does anyone understand the approval process?), it’s exclusive deal with AT&T in the U.S., a combative stance against consumers who want to take control of their own devices—the list goes on and on.

The iPhone case is even sealed to prevent consumers from changing their own dead batteries. It costs $85.95 to have Apple replace it for you.

Instead of treating the tech community with suspicion, Google embraced the collective experience of professionals and enthusiasts all over the world. The Android mobile operating system and the Chrome OS are open source projects with code available and free for anyone who wants to play with, modify and improve it.

As long as Google continues to support open source, they have my vote.

Google also decided to eschew Apple’s strategy of exclusive deals with phone companies and device makers. Android is now found on 32 devices in the market and 15 that are forthcoming. (I’m sure these are lowball figures, too. They come from the Wikipedia List of Android Devices).

Ultimately it is Google’s willingness to work with so many different companies and the consumer’s ability choose a variety of mobile devices that will end Apple's domination. They should be used to it. In the computing market Mac OS X had a 5.11 percent market share in December 2009.

Who knows? The Google Chrome OS may even challenge Windows in time.

Apple’s model of “we know better than our customers” didn’t work in personal computing, and it won’t work for long in mobile technology either.

Champions of design.

The one thing that Apple really has going for it is design. There is no doubt that before Steve Jobs returned to Apple in 1998, tech was UGLY!

Power Mac 5500 from 1997 and Twentieth Anniversary Mac from 1997:




 iMac from 1998 and choice of colors: 

        Color Options


Even after Apple began to make things that consumers wanted to possess--wanted to be seen with--to enjoy just for aesthetic reasons, the rest of the industry failed to get it.

Apple brought sexy back, and it worked.

Now its 2010 and other tech companies have finally gotten it. Striking design is just as important as cutting edge technology.

One of my favorite computer designs to come out in the last year was created by BMW DesignworksUSA for  Thermaltake. Here's a pic of the Thermaltake Level 10 Gaming Station:


Choice, personalization and open source.

The empire that Apple has been building since 1998 is being challenged. And while the comfortable citizens of that empire are clutching their iPhones and congratulating Steve Jobs on the iPad, the barbarians are raising their own mobile devices in defiance.

You can almost hear them shout: “By the power of Google, I have the POWER!”

[Photo Credits - Top Photo:; Power Mac 5500: Ben Boldt; TAM:, iMac: Flickr, Masashige MOTOE; iMac Colors Flickr, Masashige MOTOE; Thermaltake Case: BMW Group DesignworksUSA]

NASA Engineers Bring the Internet to Astronauts

“Hello Twitterverse...”

With these words Astronaut TJ Creamer (@Astro_TJ on Twitter) sent the first live tweet from space on January 22 using the newly installed internet connection aboard the International Space Station (ISS).

It’s hard enough to set up a reliable wireless network at home on Earth, let alone space. I harbor a personal grudge against my two-foot-thick 19th century brick/plaster wifi-killing walls and don’t get me started with my router or my ISP. So how does NASA connect with the ISS 300 to 400 kilometers above the Earth travelling at nearly 28000 km/h?

In this case, engineers took advantage of the station’s existing communication link, which relies on the Ku radio band. The Ku band is the most common portion of the frequency spectrum used for satellite communication and is not reserved for restricted use. Among the companies that use the Ku band for commercial purposes are satellite internet providers and news networks broadcasting on satellite from remote locations.

A software modification was all that was needed to dedicate a portion of the existing communication network for personal internet use.

“The system will provide astronauts with direct private communications to enhance their quality of life during long-duration missions by helping to ease the isolation associated with life in a closed environment,” NASA stated in a press release announcing the upgrade. The internet connection should have little to no effect on the actual day to day maintenance of the station or its scientific mission.

Tweeting from space may be convenient, but some scientists are working on a much tougher space-based networking problem. Currently, satellites, probes, landers and other unmanned spacecraft each have a unique communication link with Earth. Vinton Cerf, one of the co-inventors of the TCP/IP internet protocol, has been working with NASA for over a decade on a robust protocol that could integrate different space based communication devices to work together like an Earth based system of routers, switches and clients.

Dubbed Disruption Tolerant Networking, or DTN, the protocol is designed to deal with the interference and unpredictability of interplanetary communication signals.

While there are no wifi blocking walls in space, these networks struggle with intermittent, unpredictable and easily degraded signals. Transmission scrambling solar storms, blackout periods when a spacecraft is on the far side of a planet and the enormous distances that signals must travel all add up to a large number of corrupted or lost data packets. On Earth we’d just query the source again and start the transmission over, but without reliable continuous connections this just isn’t feasible.

“You are going to be able to communicate from A to B at this data rate starting at 12:30 and ending at 3:30, and then you are not going to be able to communicate on that link anymore...until next Tuesday,” said Scott Burleigh, a software designer at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in an interview with IEEE Spectrum last July for an article on the particulars of DTN.

Overcoming these obstacles outside of Earth’s orbit are going to be the real space communications challenge.

It’s great that astronauts can tweet from space, update their Facebook accounts and browse a friend’s Flickr album, but this personal internet upgrade is not exactly a revolution in communication.

When we get a live tweet from one of the Martian Rovers though, I’ll be impressed.

[Top photo credit: NASA March 23, 2009]

Obama's Vision (and Budget) for NASA

Charles Bolden, NASA Administrator

President Obama’s FY 2011 budget request for NASA calls for the end of the beleaguered Constellation program, which was designed to return humans to the moon. Engineers have been developing Constellation for the past five years, but last summer’s review of human spaceflight plans called the program “unsustainable.”

The new budget, announced by NASA Administrator Charles Bolden on Monday, would increase the space agency’s funding by US $6 billion over the next 5 years, with most of that allocated to accelerating the development of commercial space vehicles. The new plan designates Mars as the ultimate destination for human space explorers, with the moon and near-Earth asteroids as stepping-stones to get there.

Bolden acknowledged that the proposed budget is based on the Augustine committee’s report last summer, which proposed a “flexible path” of sending robots and humans to multiple destinations—the moon, near-Earth asteroids, moons of Mars, and eventually the red planet itself.

The chairman of the review committee, former Lockheed Martin CEO Norm Augustine, indicated that he was pleased that the budget addresses his committee’s concerns. “The President’s proposed program seems to match means to ends, and should therefore be executable,” he wrote in an online statement. Under the Constellation program, “the means [did] not match the ends,” he told IEEE Spectrum last month.

Sally Ride, the first American woman in space and one of the ten members of the Augustine committee, also spoke briefly in support of the new plan, calling it “a significant vote of confidence in NASA and an exciting strategic shift that puts NASA on a sustainable path toward the future,” specifically by reallocating Constellation funds to develop new technologies for on-orbit refueling, automated rendezvous and docking, heavy-lift rockets, and robotic precursor missions, among other high-tech developments. This shift, Ride said, “brings NASA back to its roots as an engine of innovation” while ensuring that as we explore the solar system, “we’ll be doing it with new technology, and arm in arm with our commercial and international partners.”

The new funding in the budget is intended for commercial programs chosen on a competitive basis, rather than internal NASA programs. That money will “drive the beginning of a commercial crew industry,” Bolden said, and leave NASA able to do it’s old job of innovating ways to send humans “farther, faster, and more affordably” into space; specifically, beyond low Earth orbit.

To jump-start the fledgling commercial industry, NASA will award US $50 million from economic stimulus funds to commercial space pioneers—Blue Origin of Kent, WA, The Boeing Company of Houston, TX, Paragon Space Development Corporation of Tucson, AZ, Sierra Nevada Corporation of Louisville, CO, and United Launch Alliance of Centennial, CO—to develop initial concepts and technology demonstrations that will take human crews safely into orbit.

The budget further commits to extending the life of the International Space Station (ISS) until 2020 or beyond, past the 2015 de-orbit date that would have put an early end to a space lab that has been under construction for over a decade. And it grants the space shuttle program enough funding—$600 million in FY 2011—to ensure that the last five scheduled missions will fly, completing the construction of the ISS by the end of 2010.

While the Augustine report found that a human return to the moon would not be feasible before 2028 or 2030 based on Constellation’s progress and meager funding, NASA deputy administrator Lori Garver predicts that humans will be rocketing to space on commercial launchers by as early as 2016, based on timelines from commercial bids.

Of course, not everyone will be thrilled with the president's plan. Congress will want to hang on to jobs in NASA centers across the country. Seven thousand jobs are already on the chopping block with the imminent end of the space shuttle program, according to Garver, and with Constellation’s demise, more will follow.

But Bolden stressed that the money invested in new science and technology programs, especially in the commercial sector, will open up jobs—as many as 5,000 nationwide, he said. Office of Technology Policy (OSTP) chief of staff Jim Kohlenberger added that money budgeted to invest in upgrading NASA centers like the launch facilities at Kennedy Space Center, in Florida, will also create more jobs.

When asked how the government would respond to taxpayers wondering why they spent 9 billion dollars on the cancelled program, OSTP's Kohlenberger said that “having put $9 billion into an unexecutable program isn’t an excuse to spend another $50 billion and still not have an executable program.”

NASA spokespeople remain confident that Constellation’s end won’t mean the end of spaceflight, human or otherwise. As NASA’s Garver stressed during the press conference, “We’re not cancelling our ambitions to explore space, we’re cancelling Constellation.” 

W00t W00t for Wetlands

February 2nd is World Wetlands Day, in case that slipped your mind. In honor of the day, I’m devoting this post to a neat wetlands project I learned about during my recent visit to the farming community of Griffith, Australia.

Barren Box Swamp is a 3200-hectare site about 20 kilometers northwest of town. In its natural state, it was what’s known as an ephemeral wetland: it flooded with water after rainfalls and dried out completely during dry periods. Around about the late 1950s, the local irrigation authority permanently flooded it, creating a lake to store about 80,000 megaliters of water that would then feed into the irrigation system. In the process, the natural wetlands were destroyed.

But the lake was shallow—2 to 3 meters at its deepest—and much water was lost through evaporation. So Murrumbidgee Irrigation decided to split the site into 3 smaller areas, or cells. Two of the cells are still used to store water for irrigation, but because they’re deeper and more compact, there’s less evaporation loss. The third cell, which covers half the site, is being gradually restored to its ephemerally swampy state. The move saved the company about 20,000 megaliters of water, and the sale of that water paid for the construction of the 10 kilometers of levee banks that now divide the site. “Environmentally, it’s quite significant, and it’s left us with infrastructure that’s far better than what we previously had,” says Brett Tucker, the managing director of Murrumbidgee Irrigation.

Barren Box isn’t open to the public, but I got to visit the site with the company’s executive manager for the environment, Rob Kelly. “This project clearly demonstrates that you can have both environmental outcomes and irrigation outcomes—there was no tradeoff required,” Kelly told me.

It’s a beautiful spot. Along one stretch of water, I spotted black swans and cormorants and grebes and pelicans and ducks and ibises; Kelly says dozens of bird species now call the swamp home. A little further on, wallabees and emus bounded through the tall grass. I felt like I’d stepped into a nature documentary. (The photo of sunbathing pelicans was taken at Barren Box by local nature photographer David Kleinert.)

It took years of careful negotiation with the community to get the project approved, Kelly says, but the effort was well worth it. “When we first embarked on this, a lot of people told us, ‘It’ll never work.’ We simply took the attitude, that’s not an excuse not to try,” Kelly says. “And look what you can achieve.”

NASA Announces New Budget

NASA administrator Charles Bolden spoke about the space agency's new budget at a press conference at 12:30. Looks like returning to the Moon in the near future is being dropped - this is what the Augustine panel recommended. Not unexpected, but will disappoint many.

The budget is focusing on robotic missions and Earth and climate science. The International Space Station is going to get some money.

The Constellation program is being canceled. Future of human expolaration is unclear - no timelines were given. No funding line for solid rocket motors beyond 2010, it seems.

However, Bolden spoke about "in-orbit fuel depots" and how to "reduce aircraft fuel needs" as areas that the agency will focus on.

The budget is being billed as "more sustainable." Obama is expanding funding by $6 billion.

Realizing that the cancelation of manned spaceflights to the Moon will be perceived as killing a source of inspiration to young and old, Bolden spent quite a bit of time reassuring reporters that it was otherwise.

He said NASA was "absolutely committed to inspiring young people."


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