Tech Talk iconTech Talk

Life in Drought

Farm for sale in Griffith, Austalia










Looking out the window of a turboprop bound for Griffith, a farming town of about 24,000 in New South Wales, Australia, I watch the farmland roll by—except there’s nothing there, just a dry, brown expanse. It’s the height of summer, and in a good wet year, these fields would form a verdant patchwork. But there hasn’t been a good year in at least a decade. “It used to be so green here,” sighs Sylvia, my seatmate and a long-time resident of the area.

As we approach Griffith, the view does green up considerably. I spot orchards and vineyards and incredibly lush green plots that must be rice, one of the staple crops around here. Those are irrigated farms, Sylvia explains. For nearly 100 years, a network of canals and channels that draw water from the nearby Murrumbidgee River have made the region one of the country’s most productive. But a decade of drought along with a national policy to restrict water usage throughout Australia’s agricultural heartland are forcing Griffith’s farmers to make hard choices.

On Trevor and Gerardine Hill’s farm southeast of town, they’ve planted 44 of their 412 hectares with long-grain rice and they’re also raising about 300 ewes and lambs. On the gentle slope behind their neat yellow-brick ranch house, they’ve planted native trees, and the front yard is adorned by an impressive rose garden. Gerardine grew up on this farm. In the wetter years, she says, they grew more rice as well as azuki beans and fava beans, and they raised cattle.Sheep in dusty Griffith, Australia

Each morning and evening, Trevor inspects the water levels in his rice fields. It may seem counterintuitive to grow such a water-loving crop in such a water-stressed area, but people don’t realize how far that water actually goes, he says. He lets his lambs graze along the banks of the paddies—that way, he doesn’t have to buy feed, and the lambs keep the weeds down. After the rice is harvested, he bails up the stubble and sells it; it’s good roughage for cattle. Then with the water that’s still left in the ground, he’ll plant a crop of oats or barley. “So I use the water four ways,” he says.

Still, the Hills aren’t sure how long they’ll keep at it. Like every farmer in the area, they struggle to stay current with new water policies that limit how much water they’re allocated in a given season. They can also buy and sell water, but there’s a raft of rules and fees attached to water trading, too. One of the goals of Australia’s water market is to compel farmers and other water users to become more efficient. But in practice, fluctuations in water prices can cost a farmer dearly. Trevor is still smarting from a recent purchase that effectively cost him several thousand dollars when the price of water dropped shortly after he bought. “You try to make good decisions, you try to do the right thing, but you never feel like you’re getting all the information you need,” he says.

Farming in Australia has never really been easy, given the huge variability in rainfall and the poor soil in many areas. To be a farmer here you almost have to be an optimist. But in Griffith, there have been a number of suicides in the last few years, and very few younger people are taking up farming. A neighbor of the Hills got so concerned with what he was seeing that he started up what’s effectively a support group for the younger farmers. About once a month, they get together for dinner and a few drinks. “Everybody opens up,” Gerardine says. “It’s been a really positive thing.”

Aussie famerJust down the road, Terry McFarlane has sunk about $90,000 into two U.S.-built irrigation systems—each is basically a big long sprinkler on wheels, guided by GPS. From early evening to early morning, the computer-controlled irrigator rolls slowly over a field of zucchini, releasing a pre-programmed spray of water. The irrigators should cut his water usage by 25 to 30 percent, McFarlane says. But he also expects to see his fuel bills rise, due to the electricity demands of the new machinery, including an industrial pump that pushes the water from a small dam on his property out to the fields. And deploying the equipment and working out the kinks have taken considerably more time and effort than he’d anticipated, he says.

This is his first season with the new irrigators, and McFarlane can’t yet say if the equipment will pay off. “I need someone to tell me: Did I do the right thing?”

The iPad--Finally, a Computer for the Late Adopter

I watched multiple live-blog feeds of the Apple iPad introduction today. (I’ll assume my invitation to the event itself was lost in the email, not that Apple is ignoring Spectrum.) I figured I’d see a really cool e-book reader (wrong), or maybe a great travel computer (right; my husband and I had been thinking about buying a netbook to share, netbooks just lost our interest).

What I didn’t think I’d find was the answer to my aunt’s problem. That is, how do you get a 70-something-year-old woman on the Internet when she’s never used a computer and has just one hard-wired landline phone in her house, no cable TV and no patience for service people, boxes with blinking lights, and frustrating technology?

She’d been eyeing netbooks, thinking they were pretty cute, until I explained she’d need a dsl or cable modem with a wireless base station before she’d be sitting on the living room couch googling random facts. That all sounded much too complicated for what she wanted to do, which was to look up the name of an actress she recognized on TV but couldn’t quite place, or find out a little more about something she just heard on the radio news.

Sure, a 3G data connection is the obvious way to get my aunt on the Internet, but no way is she going to spend $60 a month. No way, either, is she going to sign any kind of contract—she isn’t entirely sure she wants to be on the Internet; she’s not going to commit to paying for two years online.

But Apple’s new iPad offers a 3G connection starting at $15 a month, paid in advance, no contract. This, finally, is a way to get my aunt on the Internet in a completely non-scary way. Not to mention the fact that the iPad doesn’t need a keyboard, and has no separate touchpad or mouse. My aunt will not have to figure out how to make the cursor move to the right place before she clicks—something that I’ve seen can be difficult for folks that haven’t already learned how to use some kind of pointing device.

I’m not sure that Apple, a company that’s always attracted the early-adopters, had this extremely-late-adopter market in mind when designing the iPad. But, intentionally or not, the iPad gives those of us who have been trying to get late adopters to just adopt, adopt anything, new hopes of success.

For more reactions and analysis, visit the iPad topic page.

The iPad is Not A Kindle Killer; Blame the Display

The iPad, the much-anticipated Apple tablet computer announced today, is not going to revolutionize the display industry. It doesn’t sport a bright OLED display; it isn’t wearing the latest Pixel Qi technology that combines normal transmissive LCD technology with a black-and-white reflective version for easy viewing in bright sunlight.

The iPad simply uses a liquid crystal display backlit with light emitting diodes, the kind of display you see today on many flat screen televisions and computer monitors. The particular type of liquid crystal display—in-plane switching—has two transistors per crystal, one more than standard thin-film transistor LCDs. This kind of display needs a brighter backlight, so has been less common in the laptop area, but has a bigger viewing angle.

Apple’s choice to go with LCD technology isn’t particularly surprising; the iPad will be used to display photos and videos, and to do that needs a full-color, full-motion display. So e-ink and its monochrome brethren are out. OLED technology, right now, is just too expensive. And Pixel Qi is a compromise; it gives up a bit in color saturation to pick up that visibility in sunlight. Steve Jobs isn’t one to compromise.

But the choice of LCD technology means that, in spite of the library of e-books that will be available for the iPad, this device is no e-book reader. While I’m not an e-book convert myself, the folks I know who carry Kindles with them read them outdoors as much as in, often in sunlight; that just won’t be possible with this LCD display. And, even indoors, they swear that the reading experience—in particular, the eyestrain—is much different than that on an LCD display

The iPad will, however, impact the world of displays, says Jason Heikenfeld, an associate professor in the Novel Devices Laboratory at the University of Cincinnati, because, with its ability to allow magazines and other publications to be sold with the ease of an iTunes track, it “will increase the movement to digital media.” This will up the demand for a do-it-all display that can display full color motion video as well as easy to read text, and may speed up the advance of the state of the art.

Over at the FX Palo Alto Laboratory (a subsidiary of Fuji Xerox), a group of scientists looking at how best to read and navigate electronic documents on portable devices is also encouraged by the iPad. While the current reading applications don’t go beyond the state of the art, says researcher Scott Carter, “the form factor coupled with the screen capabilities should facilitate new media-rich reader applications as well as interactive collection browsing apps” that will make all our lives easier.

In the meantime, I won’t be tossing out the pile of books on my nightstand in order to download my bedtime reading from iTunes. It’s not a printed book killer—or a Kindle killer. But, to be fair, it doesn’t have to be to succeed, it’s a sweet computer, certainly more appealing than a netbook—but that’s another post.

For more reactions and analysis, visit the iPad topic page.

Rambus and Samsung Kiss and Make Up


Several Moore’s Law generations ago, in a land not too far away, a legal battle began. Rambus sued Samsung, claiming that its competitor--which had agreed to license some elements of its intellectual property portfolio--had infringed upon its patents for SDRAM and DDR PC memory, and GDDR2 and GDDR3 graphics memory, and had engaged in anticompetitive practices aimed at shutting Rambus out of the memory market.

Six years after the legal proceedings began, the seemingly perpetual litigants announced that they have come to settlement terms aimed at, among other things, ending the steady flow of corporate earnings into the coffers of each side’s attorneys. The settlement calls for Samsung to pay restitution in several ways: a US $200 million lump sum; a $25 million payment each quarter for the next five years; a $200 million purchase of Rambus stock; and a partridge in a pear tree.

The upfront payment settles Rambus’ claims for royalties owed by Samsung on DDR DRAMs using Rambus technology that have already shipped. The quarterly disbursements will cover licensing fees for the next five years. Oddly enough, by buying stock in Rambus, Samsung stands to gain if Rambus wins in court against Micron Technology and Hynix Semiconductor, Samsung’s former co-defendants in the intellectual property lawsuit. Rambus filed suit against the three companies in 2004, alleging that they had made a pact to fix prices so Rambus would not be able to sell its memory chips.



Inside the iPad--A Chip from A Design Veteran

The speculation is over, Steve Jobs just announced the long rumored Apple tablet computer. It's the iPad, and the event is continuing as I write this. For Jobs, it's more about what it can do than how it does it, and that's usually a good thing for consumers. So the event is more about demos than hardware.

But the hardware is interesting. For starters, there's the microprocessor. It's a new one, designed internally at Apple, tagged the 1GHz Apple A4 chip.

Remember Apple's acquisition in 2008 of chip company P.A. Semi, founded by Dan Dobberpuhl, formerly of Digital Equipment Corp.? IEEE Member Dobberpuhl designed the DEC Alpha and Strong-ARM microprocessors, and received the 2003 IEEE Solid-State Circuits Award for his work. Last summer, the rumor mill speculated that Dobberpuhl was running a team of low-power experts to design a chip that would give a cell-phone higher power and longer battery life than its competitors. It looks like instead of a cell phone, Dobberpuhl has been working on the iPad project. If that's the case, given his track record, this is good news for this new product.

Photo: Apple

For more reactions and analysis, visit the iPad topic page.

The Department of Magical Thinking

The cutting edge in 21st century defense technologyI love sci-fi technology as much as (or more than) the next guy, but the military obsession with high tech panaceas might be doing more harm than good. There's always been a pipeline from charlatans to the defense money train, and the worst chicanery usually happens when thorny, headache-inducing policy problem are addressed with spiffy future tech.

The BBC reported on the latest head-desker earlier this week: The ADE-651 "magic wand" bomb detector, which was supposed to detect TNT, among other things, doesn't work. Jim McCormick, the director of British firm ATSC, promised that his wand could identify bombs with its "special" electronic card (which his company also makes).

In tests undertaken by BBC Newsnight, the device turned out to contain nothing but the sort of anti-shoplifting store merchandise tag that makes the door beep if the saleslady forgot to cut the tag off your new pants. This would be funny had the uselessness of the device in question not led to "hundreds" of alleged deaths caused by faulty devices failing to predict suicide truck bombs.

Never mind that the thing looks like a staple gun attached to an old TV antenna. In a previous interview with BBC News, McCormick asserted that his device operates on the principle of dowsing. You know, finding water with a divining rod. A psychic stick. Gizmodo reported on the questionable science behind this wacky device back in November.

But hey, snake oil salesmen with ridiculous magical devices have pilfered money from defense coffers since time immemorial.

The latest variation is the “machine that can read your thoughts at airport security lines." The US Department of Homeland Security is spending $7 million a year trying to develop technology that can find the bad guys by reading their minds. Here's the basic idea: as you wait in line at the airport checkpoint, thermal cameras lots of sensors will read your body temperature, your heart rate and respiration, your skin's moistness, and the look in your eyes. And so, as one commenter astutely pointed out, if you take a Xanax to conceal the explosive load in your pants, you’ll be fine. But if you have a fear of flying, it’s off to Gitmo.

At least DHS is using psychobabble, not actual magic--or outright fraud. Back in 2003, another of these magical devices led to one of the first of a seven-year oscillation of yellow-orange threat level flip-flops. (An absurdity which culminated, this past December, in an inevitable "orange to orange, only more so" status adjustment following the underwear bomber's fail-o-rama.)

The 2003 yellow-to-orange bump was caused by a CIA contractor's claim to have found hidden terrorist strike information in Al Jazeera footage. [Caveat lector: This excellent and thoroughly researched article appears in Playboy, which means that even thought the text is safe for work, the ads probably aren’t. I suggest turning off images in your browser before you visit.]

Brief summary: Self-proclaimed "scientist" Dennis Montgomery convinced the Bush White House, the CIA, and the Air Force that he could predict terrorist attacks. Specifically, he asserted that the Al Jazeera TV network was transmitting data to Al Qaeda sleepers, consisting of "latitudes and longitudes and flight numbers." Hundreds of canceled flights and holiday disruptions later, it turned out that the government contracts were based on faked demonstrations. Because his technology did not actually work, Montgomery was staging rigged demonstrations, faking the results of his "special" image processing algorithm by having someone hide behind a wall and press a button, reminiscent of the Great and Terrible Oz.

Meanwhile, "Magic Wand" McCormick has been arrested, and Britain has banned his nefarious cards from being exported. But even after all that, Iraq's security forces insist that actually, the guy just didn't want to explain the magic to a bunch of Americans. And they totally work, sure, 100 percent of the time. And they're worth every penny of the US $85 million they've cost Iraq.


Dispatch from Port-au-Prince

Engineers are making progress in their efforts to network NGOs in Port-au-Prince. Last Friday, Inveneo's team in Haiti, Mark Summer and Adris Bjornson, began deployment of the first of 15 long-distance WiFi Internet links for NetHope partner organizations across Port-au-Prince.

According to an account sent late last Friday to IEEE Spectrum by Inveneo's Joel Pliskin, Summer and Bjornson "started by connecting an Inveneo R4 Hub Server to the VSAT satellite Internet downlink from ITC Global and installing a local access point for the CHF International headquarters. Then they created two long-distance WiFi links from the headquarters CHF International, to two different offices of Save the Children in Port-au-Prince. The first link was around 2.5 kilometers long. Later this afternoon they established a third link to the offices of Catholic Relief Services."

"This is the start of the network we plan to establish within the next two weeks," Pliskin continues. "The final result will be a redundant, high-speed Internet connection shared via long-distance WiFi antennas with 15-20 NetHope member agencies. This new connectivity will open the flow of information within and among agencies and speed the delivery of critical relief services."

In an email sent to Inveneo's San Francisco office via the VSAT link he helped establish, Summer describes the scene in Port-au-Prince:

“Driving around you see many collapsed or significantly damaged buildings, often right next to completely intact ones. Here in the hills the damage is significantly less then down in the center of PaP where in it seems that in many areas more then 50% of the buildings are gone or beyond repair.

"We've seen buildings that have had two or three stories and now no higher then 5 feet of the ground - it seems as if walls just turned into sand...

"Many Haitians now live in parks, parking lots or simply in the street (often a whole road is closed because people now live it in) under tarps or in tents. You see people bathing on the side of the road, cooking in the street or parking lots etc.

"Currently the weather is very pleasant warm (in the 80s) but not too humid in the day and a nice cooling off in the evenings but not too cold. Once it starts to rain here things will be decidedly more unpleasant for the people living in the parks, streets and back yards.”
Inveneo's Pliskin says that the non-profit has already received requests for assistance from other organizations in Haiti. "As we gain a better understanding of local conditions and local partner resources, we hope to expand our impact and establish lasting ICT capacity in Haiti."

Nethope is covering equipment costs, while the EKTA Foundation has supported the initial deployment.


War Gamers

If Google really is on the front line of cyberwar, then who are the next generation warriors?  This is a question I got to ask Lieutenant General William Lord, Chief of Warfighting Integration and Chief Information Officer, Office of the Secretary of the Air Force, when I met him in 2008 at Barksdale Air Force in Shreveport, Louisiana, where the Air Force had set up a provisional Cyberspace Command.  His answer:   take a look at WarGames.

Lord will never forget the moment he plunked down in a movie theater 24 years ago and watched the movie WarGames.  In the film, Mathew Broderick plays a bowl-cut teenage hacker who decides to play a simulated battle of thermonuclear war on his chunky 1980s computer.   When the game turns real, Broderick’s braniac gets recruited by the military to save America from the brink of World War III.   Such a vision has long been the stuff of science fiction like Ender’s Game, the cult novel about videogamers who get recruited to fight a pixilated war turned real.  But as the audience around him shoveled popcorn, Lord sat on the edge of his seat for a different reason:  this wasn’t a fantasy, he knew, it was real. “Maybe the nature of warfare can change,” Lord told me.

“What if you can get into a military command and control system, and make half of them dark?”  He said, “and make the other half think they’re a Maytag washer in a spin cycle as opposed to a missile system, and say they can’t use their weapons and can’t command and control their forces.  What happens when we want to zero out all the bank accounts of your nation’s armed forces, and they can’t go to work the next day because their spouses are angry with them?  You begin to scramble the brain of the enemy so much that they don’t have the ability to wage war.”

Lord called these tools “weapons of mass disruption,” and suggested that they can, in effect, create a war without bloodshed.  “We have principally focused on kinetic side of warfare:  blowing buildings up,” he says.  But cyber-warfare can reinvent the very idea of conflict, he suggests, by getting the enemies “to change their mind before you have to drop a 2000 pound bomb on them.”

The tougher part, Lord said, is finding the right kind of person to man the controls.  “We’ve got to recruit a different kind of kid,” he explained, “and I think we as institution will have to change culturally because of that kid.  Maybe the warrior of the future, we won’t care how fast they run the mile and a half.” Instead, it’s the inherent skills of the digital natives – the ones who grew up pawing a mouse – that come into play.  “It’s the kind of kid coming up today,” he said, “the multitasking kids who are doing instant message chat with three different activities, talking on a cell phone, having two websites up, and doing a John Madden.”  So much for Rambo, Uncle Sam wants the all Broderick team:  the quick-thinking, fast-thumbed, big-brained squad.  

IEEE Establishes Haiti Rebuilding Fund

Dear IEEE Members:

The tragedy in Haiti is still only in the first stage of triage with valiant efforts being made to alleviate the immediate suffering and provide the basics for sustaining human life. However, challenges just as daunting lay ahead for reconstruction. One of these will be the re-establishing of engineering and technology education and professional activities in Haiti.

As a global transnational organization with nearly 400,000 members and as a leader in advancing technology for humanity, IEEE is uniquely positioned to help address these challenges. To this end, IEEE has established the IEEE Haiti Engineering Educational and Professional Development Rebuilding Fund. Individuals may contribute online or donate by check to the IEEE Foundation and mail to the IEEE Development Office, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854. Donations from IEEE organizational units (societies, sections, conferences, etc.) will be made using existing governance processes. IEEE will match the first US$50,000 in donations. Because Haiti is in IEEE Region 9, disbursements of funds will be coordinated through that Region.

The IEEE Board of Directors just last November developed a policy that allows IEEE and its Organizational Units to contribute to third-party nonprofit organizations that provide disaster relief. The disbursements may be in the form of grants to academic institutions, charitable organizations, or used for such things as equipment, services, scholarships and classroom and laboratory materials. They also may be used to support programs developed for retraining or other professional activities to help engineering and technology professionals in Haiti.

IEEE continues to encourage donations to other organizations for the immediate relief effort and to help bring some semblance of stability to the lives of the people of Haiti. But we are hopeful that the generosity of our members – and others associated with IEEE -- will also add to the long-term development of Haiti through this IEEE fund.  

Please direct any questions to the IEEE Contact Center at


Pedro Ray
2010 IEEE President and Chief Executive Officer

Engineers Race to Restore Communications after Haiti Quake

With thousands of doctors, nurses, aid workers and troops descending on Port-au-Prince in the last week to join more than 800 non-governmental organizations (NGOs) already there, reporters on the ground have observed that the damage done to the telecommunications infrastructure is hampering coordination efforts. But in an ironic twist, it turns out that Haiti's Internet connectivity is robust precisely because its telecommunications infrastructure is so underdeveloped. Specifically, most Haitian ISPs connect to the Internet via satellite and are not dependent on the country's lone undersea fiber optic cable link, which was knocked out the during the quake. The challenge for engineers now is the proverbial last mile--getting local connections to satellites restored so NGOs can get online.

Basic telecommunications aide was quick to arrive, but it was limited to helping first responders. Telecom sans Frontieres based in Pau, France sent two teams last week at the request of UNICEF and the UN Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination teams. According to TSF, its engineers “installed reliable and durable connections for local authorities and emergency responders.”
Late last week, the Geneva-based International Telecommunications Union dispatched engineers to assess the damage to telecom infrastructure along with 100 satellite terminals—and the personnel to operate them—in an effort to help coordinate rescue efforts. According to a press release, “ITU will also set up a Qualcomm Deployable Base Station (QDBS), a reliable, responsive and complete cellular system designed to enable vital wireless communications aimed at strengthening response and recovery mechanisms in a disaster zone.”

Trilogy International Partners, which owns the Voila-Comcel cellphone company, says that its network is operating 80 percent of its cell sites and is providing 20,000 phones and service to relief agencies at no charge. Meanwhile, Digicel Group, which serves 2 million Haitian cellphone customers, said Sunday that it is working to restore 30 percent of its base stations; the other 70 percent are functional.
Alongside efforts aimed at restoring basic communications, programmers around the world have been organizing around the Crisis Commons wiki and live meet-ups dubbed Crisis Camps in places like Washington, D.C., Silicon Valley, Los Angeles, London, and Wellington, New Zealand to create, among other things, a Google map for use by NGOs and the Tweak the Tweet project to optimize the microblogging service to coordinate the efforts of relief workers.

But to take advantage of the new applications being developed, NGOs need Internet access. That would seem to be a big problem because the lone undersea fiber optic cable linking Haiti to the rest of the world was severed during the quake. Consulting group Telegeography spoke with a representative of Bahamas Telecommunication Company, owner of the Bahamas Domestic Submarine Network, which links to Haiti, who said that there's no telling how long it will be before the cable is repaired. However, most ISPs in Haiti--and in much of the developing world--rely on satellites for Internet connectivity and so were not affected.

Stephan Beckert of TeleGeography told IEEE Spectrum today that the cable outage isn't as big a deal was one would imagine. "I just chatted with James Cowie, CTO of Renesys. He confirmed that the cable outage didn't have much impact on connectivity to Haiti, because most of the ISPs in Haiti are still reliant on satellites."

To help increase bandwidth availability in Haiti, SES World Skies announced on January 14 that it "is donating satellite capacity on five of its spacecraft and access to teleport facilities in support of relief efforts, disaster recovery and in order to cover vital communications needs....The SES WORLD SKIES satellites provide inbound and outbound connectivity for the disaster zone as well as internal communication links."

At least one NGO network wants to take advantage of satellite connectivity to coordinate relief efforts. NetHope, a “collaboration of 28 of the world’s leading international humanitarian organizations” is working with San Francisco-based Inveneo to provide “Internet connectivity via VSAT / Wimax [Correction: according to Inveneo's Joel Pliskin, engineers will install long-range WiFi links, not Wimax] link in Port-au-Prince and surrounding areas. This connection will be available to all of NetHope's members in Haiti. Requests for access points are chosen based on power, security, and line-of-sight.”

According to an Inveneo press release “This network will support Internet access in and out of the country, carry voice communications until the cellular networks are repaired, and allow for collaboration and sharing of resources among NGOs. Establishment of networks like this is a cornerstone of our core competency and provides an avenue for us to deploy additional ICT infrastructure and participate in longer-term capacity building and reconstruction opportunities in country.”

Reached by email over the weekend, Inveneo CEO Kristin Peterson told IEEE Spectrum that Inveneo co-founder Mark Summer and engineer Andris Bjornson were bound for Haiti on Tuesday with the assistance of CHF International, which Peterson says “is helping us with the logistics to get in to Haiti.” They are bringing with them more than 330 kilos of equipment, including climbing gear, power drills, powerstrips, electrical cords, coax cable, wireless routers, 18 5 Ghz RocketDish parabolic antennas, and 10 Linux mini-servers. Summer and Bjornson are slated to stay for two weeks, though that may change depending on circumstances. 

Images courtesy of Inveneo. Top image: Mark Summers left, Colm Pelow right, check equipment. Bottom image: Briah Shih gets a palette of RocketDishes ready for shipment.


Tech Talk

IEEE Spectrum’s general technology blog, featuring news, analysis, and opinions about engineering, consumer electronics, and technology and society, from the editorial staff and freelance contributors.

Newsletter Sign Up

Sign up for the Tech Alert newsletter and receive ground-breaking technology and science news from IEEE Spectrum every Thursday.

Load More