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Two-Dimensional Materials Could Make the Ink for Printable Electronics

Researchers at the National University of Singapore (NUS) have developed an exfoliation method for the two-dimensional (2D) material molybdenum disulfide that leads to crystals of the substance becoming high quality monolayer flakes. These flakes can made into a solution that could be used for printable photonics and electronics.

NUS researchers have been on a bit of a run lately in developing novel manufacturing techniques for 2D materials. Last month, researchers there developed a one-step method for producing graphene for wafer scale films. This latest work also presents improved manufacturing methods for 2D materials, but this time the material of choice is molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), which is itself gaining some favor over graphene in electronics applications. However, the exfoliation technique developed by the NUS team can be applied to other 2D materials such as such as tungsten diselenide and titanium disulfide.

These materials represent a class of chalcogenide compounds. When chalcogens, like sulfur or selenium, are combined with transition metals, like molybdenum or tungsten, they form transition metal dichalcogenides. So far only a few of these transition metal dichalcogenides have been investigated for their electronic properties,   but early indications have shown them to be promising for optoelectronic devices such as thin film solar, photodetectors and flexible logic circuits.

However, the process for turning them into a single, printable layer takes a long time and the yield is quite poor. To address this issue, the NUS researchers explored the use of metal adducts (a compound made from two or more substances) of naphthalene. The researchers created naphthalenide adducts of lithium, sodium and potassium and compared the exfoliation efficiency and quality of molybdenum disulfide produced from each. The research appears today's edition of Nature Communications.

The researchers were able to produce high quality single-layer molybdenum disulfide sheets with large flake sizes, and also demonstrated that exfoliated molybdenum disulfide flakes can be made into a printable solution. With this solution, the researchers were able to show that the ink could produce wafer-size films.

“At present, there is a bottleneck in the development of solution-processed two dimensional chalcogenides,” said Professor Loh Kian Ping, who heads the Department of Chemistry at the NUS, in a press release. “Our team has developed an alternative exfoliating agent using the organic salts of naphthalene and this new method is more efficient than previous solution-based methods. It can also be applied to other classes of two-dimensional chalcogenides. Considering the versatility of this method, it may be adopted as the new benchmark in exfoliation chemistry of two-dimensional chalcogenides.”

In future research, the NUS team will be looking at creating inks from different 2D chalcogenides using its novel method.

Photo: National University of Singapore

3M and Nanotech Startup Cambrios Join Forces to Change Display Market

International conglomerate The 3M Company and nanotech startup Cambrios Technologies jointly announced this week that 3M would be marketing a suite of products that will be based on conductors made from Cambrios silver nanowire ink. The products will be called 3M Patterned Silver Nanowire Touch Sensor Film, 3M Patterned Metal Mesh Touch Sensor Film and 3M Advanced ITO Touch Sensor Film .

The deal marks the latest commercial development in what has been one of the most hotly pursued applications for nanomaterials: the replacement of indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent conductor for controlling display pixels.

Of course, Cambrios is not alone in offering silver nanowires as an ITO replacement, with competitors Blue Nano and Carestream Health offering similar solutions. And silver nanowires are not the only nanomaterial in the running as an ITO replacement. Cima NanoTech has a self-assembling silver nanoparticle they have developed into a product they call Sante Films, which Japanese optoelectronic films and materials manufacturer Fujimori Kogyo has agreed to mass produce.

The other interesting aspect of the 3M-Cambria deal is that the agreement is between a nanotech startup and an industry leader, like 3M. 3M has some previous history in getting behind nanomaterial firms trying to make an impact in displays. About 18 months ago, 3M’s Optical Systems Division announced an agreement with quantum dot producer Nanosys to develop Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) technology based on Nanosys’s Quantum Dot Enhancement Film (QDEF).

Earlier this year, the two companies announced that they would start shipping qualification samples of their QDEF product to manufacturers. While initial impressions of QDEF appear to have been favorable (at least in the trade press), as recently as late October the QDEF product was still in the assessment stage along the supply chain.

It is a bold move by both Nanosys and 3M to get behind up good old LCD technology so it can better compete with the performance of Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED). But it is even bolder move by 3M to get behind both Cambrios and Nanosys.

In addition to a level of bravery on 3M’s part, it shows that big international companies are actually beginning to go out and look for better technologies outside of their own labs rather than trying to squash those technologies before they can become legitimate competitors. These deals represent some of the surprisingly few instances that would lead one to believe that nanotech startups with superior technology actually can find their way to market with the help of industry leaders rather than despite them.

DNA Motor Transports Cargo Along Carbon Nanotube

DNA nanotechnology has become one of the great hopes of molecular manufacturing in which large-scale objects could potentially be assembled from the most basic building blocks, atom-by-atom.  Research is slowly revealing that many of the assumptions about DNA manufacturing are accurate, such as the ability of meeting design specifications down to atomically precise accuracy.

In the latest development for DNA manufacturing, researchers at Purdue University have developed a DNA motor that can transport nanoparticles up and down a carbon nanotube.  While protein-based motors are doing this all the time in biological systems, the DNA the researchers have developed marks the first time that a synthetic molecule has been used to accomplish the same feat.

The DNA-based motor does not travel as fast as a protein-based motor does, but it does have the benefit of being controlled, of operating outside its natural environment and can be switched on or off.

The research, which was published in the journal Nature Nanotechnology (“A synthetic DNA motor that transports nanoparticles along carbon nanotubes”),  demonstrated that DNA enzymes could transport cadmium sulfide nanocrystals along the length of a single-walled nanotube, deriving energy to carry its cargo by eating up RNA left along its path.

"Our motors extract chemical energy from RNA molecules decorated on the nanotubes and use that energy to fuel autonomous walking along the carbon nanotube track," said Jong Hyun Choi, a Purdue University assistant professor of mechanical engineering, in a press release.

The DNA enzyme has a core and two arms that come out from the top and bottom of the core. Movement of the DNA occurs as that core of the DNA enzyme cleaves a strand off the RNA. After one strand of RNA has been sliced off, the upper arm of the DNA enzyme grabs onto another strand of RNA and pulls the entire body along.

When the researchers concede that the DNA is slower at moving then their protein-based counterparts, they aren’t kidding. It took 20 hours for the DNA motor to move down the length of the carbon nanotube, which was several microns long.

While the researchers believe that increasing the temperature and acidity of the environment could speed up the process, it’s not clear how much they could speed it up.

It’s also not clear how RNA will always be around to help DNA motors to travel around in different environments. While molecular manufacturing adherents will no doubt be encouraged by this research, we may not need to worry about “grey goo” overrunning our planet as nanobots go about eating everything up to feed themselves.

Illustration: Tae-Gon Cha/Purdue University

Alzheimer's-Causing Protein Could Be Nanomaterial of the Future

Up till now, the connection most people would make between nanomaterials and Alzheimer’s has always been as a potential treatment for the devastating disease. But now, instead of a nanomaterial treating the disease, researchers at the Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden are taking the protein that causes the disease and making it a nanomaterial.

The protein is known as amyloid, which is a very dense biomaterial that some researchers have been experimenting with for over a decade by combining it with other materials to alter its characteristics. What the Swedish researchers discovered is that if you expose the amyloid protein to multi-photon irradiation you could change the characteristics of the materials that have been attached to amyloid.

The research, which was published in the journal Nature Photonics (“Multiphoton absorption in amyloid protein fibres”),  could lead to optical techniques for detecting and studying amyloid structures with the aim of advancing the treatment of the brain diseases it causes.

Researchers at Chalmers and Wroclaw University of Technology in Poland revealed last month how laser techniques aimed at the amyloid protein could help find a cure for not only Alzheimer’s, but also other brain diseases caused by the amyloid, such as Parkinson’s and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (known as Mad Cow disease).

“Nobody has talked about using only light to treat these diseases until now,” says Piotr Hanczyc at Chalmers in a press release. “This is a totally new approach and we believe that this might become a breakthrough in the research of diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We have found a totally new way of discovering these structures using just laser light.”

But beyond a treatment for these brain diseases, the researchers believe that it could have even more far afield applications in photonics an optoelectronics. The researchers believe that the ability to change the characteristics of a material that have been merged with the amyloid just by using multi-photon irradiation opens up some sci-fi capabilities for the material.

One potential application is creating a metamaterial with the amyloid merged with another material. The metamaterial would alter how light is reflected off of it and make it invisible to us.

A less far-off photonic application for the material may be in the development of improved solar cells, according to Hanczyc. But even this seems a bit speculative since the multi-photon tests on the materials tied to amyloids haven’t even performed yet.

Photo: Mats Tiborn/Chalmers University of Technology

Graphene-based Nanoantennas Could Speed Up Wireless Networks

Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology say they've demonstrated via computer modeling that nano-antennas made from graphene could enable networks of nanomachines

It’s not clear exactly what kind of nanomachines the researchers are referring to, but a guess is that they are something along the lines of Eric Drexler’s proposal nearly thirty years ago of universal assemblers. I suppose another computer simulation of how nanomachines could be developed is welcome, but it sure would be good to see more physical experiments in developing the little rascals. In any case, I am not sure that making antennas for them has been the main stumbling block preventing them from being built over the last three decades.

Aside from enabling communication between nanomachines, the graphene antennas could be used in mobile phones and Internet-connected laptops to help them communicate faster.

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Graphene Production Combined Into One-Step Method for Wafer-Scale Films

In the first decade of graphene research, the preoccupation was with trying to figure out its properties and what applications it might be suited for. It seems that for the second decade of research—at least at the start—the focus has been on how to better manufacture the wonder material. While the initial research thrust, which expands our understanding of graphene's usefulness, continues, there is an increasing push to find ways to manufacture the material to the specifications required for applications such as electronics.

On the manufacturing front, research seems to be turning to nature for direction. We’ve seen it recently in efforts using “survival of the fittest” crystal growth schemes. And in the latest bit of research out of the National University of Singapore (NUS), researchers who mimicked the way beetles and tree frogs keep their feet attached to submerged leaves achieved, for the first time, both the hoped-for growth and transferability of high-quality graphene onto silicon.

The NUS research, which was published in the journal Nature (“Face-to-face transfer of wafer-scale graphene film”), addressed the fundamental problems of growing large films of graphene through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on copper and then removing them. While CVD processes yield a high-quality graphene (though, to date, not on the level of that produced by mechanical cleavage of graphite—the so-called “Scotch-tape” method) and promises roll-to-roll production of the material, taking the graphene films off the copper is exceedingly difficult because of the impurities of the copper.

The NUS researchers have dubbed their technique “face-to-face” transfer because the graphene is grown on the copper while the copper sits on top of a silicon substrate. Instead of tearing away the graphene, the copper is etched away while the graphene is lashed to the silicon by bubbles that form capillary bridges; this is the same phenomenon that lets the feet of beetles and frogs adhere to submerged leaves. The trick to achieving the capillary bridges—ensuring that the two layers do not delaminate during the etching away of the copper—was injecting gases into the wafer.

“The direct growth of graphene film on silicon wafer is useful for enabling multiple optoelectronic applications, but current research efforts remain grounded at the proof-of-concept stage,” says Professor Loh Kian Ping, who heads the Department of Chemistry at the NUS Faculty of Science, in a press release. “A transfer method serving this market segment is definitely needed, and has been neglected in the hype for flexible devices.”

The NUS team believes the “face-to-face” transfer method would be useful in batch-processed semiconductor production lines.

Photo: National University of Singapore

Bose-Einstein Condensate Made at Room Temperature for First Time

The quantum mechanical phenomena, known as Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), was first demonstrated in 1995 when experiments proved that the septuagenarian theory did in fact exist in the physical world. Of course, to achieve the phenomena a state of near absolute zero (-273 Celsius, -459 Fahrenheit) had to be created.

Now researchers at IBM’s Binnig and Rohrer Nano Center have been able to achieve the BEC at room temperature using a specially developed polymer, a laser, and some mirrors.

IBM believes that this experiment could potentially be used in the development of novel optoelectronic devices, including energy-efficient lasers and ultra-fast optical switches. One application for BEC is for the building of so-called atom lasers, which could have applications ranging from atomic-scale lithography to measurement and detection of gravitational fields.

Okay, you’re probably asking what is a Bose-Einstein Condensate? First, the history. Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein theorized that this state of matter existed in the mid-1920s when the two scientists were formulating their predictions on the characteristics of elementary particles, known as Bose-Einstein statistics.

The actual state of matter for the BEC occurs when a dilute gas of bosons—a fundamental particle—has been cooled to near absolute zero so that the bosons occupy the lowest quantum state. It has alternatively been described as “as a superatom, where all the atoms share the same quantum mechanical state.”

Until this latest research, which was published in the journal Nature Materials (“Room-temperature Bose–Einstein condensation of cavity exciton–polaritons in a polymer”), the only way to get the BEC was freezing bosons.

For the first time, the IBM team achieved it at room temperature by placing a thin polymer film—only 35 nanometers thick—between two mirrors and then shining a laser into the configuration. The bosonic particles are created as the light travels through the polymer film and bounces back and forth between the two mirrors.

While this BEC state of matter only lasts for a few picoseconds (trillionths of a second), the IBM researchers believe that it exists long enough to create a source of laser-like light or an optical switch that could be used in optical interconnects.

“That BEC would be possible using a polymer film instead of the usual ultra-pure crystals defied our expectations,” said Dr. Thilo Stöferle, a physicist, at IBM Research, in a press release. “It’s really a beautiful example of quantum mechanics where one can directly see the quantum world on a macroscopic scale.”

Now that the researchers have managed to trigger the effect, they are now looking to gain more control over it. In the process they will be evaluating how the effect could best be exploited for a range of applications. One interesting application that will be examined is using the BEC in analog quantum simulations for such macroscopic quantum phenomena as superconductivity, which is extremely difficult to model with today’s simulation approaches.

Illustration: IBM Research

Dueling Nanowire Lasers Promise Big Changes to Optoelectronics

There appears to be a crush of nanowires laser research. About two weeks ago researchers from the Australian National University (ANU) announced what they claimed to be the first room-temperature lasers made from semiconductor nanowires. And now researchers at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) say they too have built semiconductor nanowires that act as lasers at room temperatures.

With the ANU paper being submitted to Nature Photonics (“Optically pumped room-temperature GaAs nanowire lasers”) on 8 July  and then the TUM paper being submitted to Nature Communications one month later (“Lasing from individual GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell nanowires up to room temperature’), the two research projects could understandably both claim to be the first.

But beyond claims of primacy, it appears that the breakthroughs could open up a new avenue for speeding up a range of applications, such as on-chip optical interconnects and integrated optoelectronics for fiber-optic communications.

While these III-V semiconductor nanowires still fall short of the holy grail of getting silicon to act as a laser (though researchers at the University of Pennsylvania did succeed earlier this year in getting a silicon nanowire to emit light through manipulating it with plasmonics), both the ANU and TUM teams are claiming that their nanowires can be grown on silicon. And because of that, they believe the nanowire lasers will win a place in future integrated photonics and optoelectronics.

"The wires and lasers will lead to much faster, much lighter computers because light travels faster than electrons, allowing us to process data much faster," explained Dhruv Saxena from the ANU Research School of Physics & Engineering, in a press release last month.

The leader of the TUM research, Prof. Jonathan Finley, director of TUM's Walter Schottky Institute, more or less echoed this sentiment in a press release this week.

"Nanowire lasers could represent the next step in the development of smaller, faster, more energy-efficient sources of light," said Finley, in the statement.

Both the ANU and TUM teams do face some obstacles that need to be overcome. Both teams acknowledge that the laser emission from the nanowires was simulated by light. To really get to the point of practical applications electrically injected devices, in which the lasers are powered by electricity, will likely be required.

Image: WSI/TU

Viruses Build Piezoelectric Nanogenerator Through Self Assembly

Nanotechnology has opened up the possibility of building things like nature does: on the nanoscale. As such, biomimicry has been a guiding principle of nanomanufacturing.

But unlike natural processes, artificial synthesis of nanoscale structures has often required toxic and expensive conditions. Now researchers at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) say they've developed a synthesis process that can be done in a more natural way without the costly and extreme environments previously required.

What the researchers came up with uses a harmless, man-made virus, known as the M13 viral gene. The researchers modified it so that it acted as a template for a piezoelectric material, barium titanate (BaTiO3).

The research, which was published in the journal ACS Nano (“Virus-Directed Design of a Flexible BaTiO3 Nanogenerator”), demonstrated that they could build a high-performance, flexible nanogenerator from the piezoelectric material using the M13 viral gene as template for guiding self-assembly of the device.

"This is the first time to introduce a bio-templated inorganic piezoelectric material to a self-powered energy harvesting system, which can be realized through eco-friendly and efficient material syntheses," said Professor Keon Jae Lee from the Department of Material Science and Engineering at KAIST in a press release.

But, of course, using man-made viruses to guide the self-assembly of devices has long been the purview of Angela Belcher at MIT for over a decade. Nonetheless, we can’t quibble that this marks the first time that a virus template was used to create a nanogenerator. And it has a pretty respectable electrical output performance, claimed in the research paper to be about 300 nanoampere and 6 volts.

In fact, the real breakthrough of the research may be that the biosynthetic method that the KAIST researchers developed could open up new possibilities in bio-inspired self-assembly for applications ranging from thermoelectrics to biofuel cells.

Nanorods Enable Regeneration of Damaged or Severed Materials

Sometimes when you combine nanotechnology with biomimetic capabilities you get the somewhat mundane, such as the water-repellant properties of a lotus flower. But other times, you get superhero capabilities, like being able to climb a wall like Spiderman.

Now we have a biomimetic capability enabled by nanotechnology that seems to be really something out of sci-fi—regenerating damaged or severed sections of material, just as some amphibians can grow back amputated limbs.

Although the technology has only been demonstrated in a computer model, it marks the first time that bulk sections of severed materials have been shown to be capable of regenerating.

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Nanoclast

IEEE Spectrum’s nanotechnology blog, featuring news and analysis about the development, applications, and future of science and technology at the nanoscale.

 
Editor
Dexter Johnson
Madrid, Spain
 
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Rachel Courtland
Associate Editor, IEEE Spectrum
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