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PR2 Learns to Read, Can't Pronounce 'Robot' (UPDATE: Yes I Can, Says PR2)

UPDATE: Menglong Zhu, the UPenn researcher who taught their PR2 robot to read, contacted us to say that the robot, named Graspy, took issue with our headline. Graspy claims it can pronounce "robot" and sent us the audio to prove:

Teaching a robot to read out in the wild is no easy task, thanks in large part to the propensity of graphic designers (along with us normal people) to use a bewildering number of different fonts and colors to better communicate creative vision, mood, or just general boredom with Helvetica.

The University of Pennsylvania's GRASP Lab has conquered these factors, along with such things as variable lighting and distance, and has gotten their PR2 (named "Graspy") to wander around, reading things non-stop in a monotone and perhaps slightly confused voice. This newfound literacy will be available for download for both PR2s and generalized ROS platforms, which means that you can give your robot a huge brain upgrade and vastly increase its interactive capabilities with just a few simple clicks.

Two questions remain unanswered, though: can it read Wingdings, and will it, on principle, read something written in Comic Sans?

[ GRASP Lab ]

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Robot Film Festival in NYC This July

Robots seem to inspire people to make awesome movies and videos of all kinds, which is why it's high time that someone went out and put together a Robot Film Festival. If you're in New York City on July 16 and 17, you should definitely go, or better yet, you should submit your own video and be a part of the show, which will apparently include red carpet, an awards ceremony, and cocktails.

Here's a little teaser of what you might expect to see at the Robot Film Festival. I've seen a lot (like, seriously, a lot) of robot videos, and this is easily one of the weirdest:

That's a real robot! And it hates alien eggs! Impressive, yeah?

The submission deadline for the festival is June 5, and everything else you need to know is at the link below.

[ Robot Film Festival ]

Nao Robots Dance the Macarena Better Than You

The Nao, the little French humanoid whose software just became open source, is always learning new tricks. We've seen it showing off Michael Jackson moves, doing Star Wars impressions, and performing an 8-minute synchronized dance choreography. Now a trio of Nao robots is busting out some Latin dance moves with a Macarena performance that makes the uncoordinated among us more humiliated than ever now that even machines dance better than us.

The routine was created as part of a computer science course taught by Rudolf Jaksa and Maria Vircikova from the Center for Intelligent Technologies at the Technical University of Kosice, in Slovakia. Their students programmed Nao robots to perform a variety of dances (if you have a Nao, you can download the Choregraphe source files here). One of the students, Boris Raus, from Croatia, created the Macarena routine. "Programming the robots to dance," Vircikova says, "is an entertaining way for students to learn and implement algorithms that explore aesthetic motion, human-robot interaction, and creativity."

High-Speed Robot Hands Fold a Towel in 0.4 Second

Remember those crazy fast robotic hands that can dribble a ball in the blink of an eye? A research group from the University of Tokyo has been teaching them to fold towels (very small towels) at blistering speed, poking some fun at Berkeley's PR2 and its rather more, um, sedate pace.

What the researchers figured out was that if you move something deformable (like a piece of cloth) fast enough, it'll just follow the motion path of whatever it's attached to, and you don't have to worry about niggling little annoyances like the effects of gravity. Using this method, it's possible to calculate the path that the cloth will take, enabling a robot to fold super fast it as in the video above.

These high speed hands were able to fold a cloth in half in an average of 0.4 second with a success rate of about 80 percent, but researchers hope to improve that with the addition of an improved visual feedback system (similar to the one they use to scan a book just by flipping its pages) that will be able to tell the hands exactly when to close. Eventually, the hope is to teach the hands to fold a more versatile range of objects, along with crazier things like high-speed origami.

This research was presented by Yuji Yamakawa, Akio Namiki, and Masatoshi Ishikawa of the University of Tokyo and Chiba University, in their ICRA paper entitled "Motion Planning for Dynamic Folding of a Cloth with Two High-speed Robot Hands and Two High-speed Sliders."

[ Ishikawa Oku Lab ]

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Treebot Learns to Autonomously Climb Trees

This is Treebot. As you might expect, Treebot was designed to do one thing: climb trees. It is by no means the first robot able to do this, but its arboreal predecessors (RiSE and Modsnake and accidentally PackBot are just a few) weren't autonomous and didn't have the skills necessary to negotiate the complex network of branches that you tend to find on trees worth climbing.

The design of Treebot is fairly unique: it uses a set of flexible linear actuators connecting two gripping claws to allow it to move around like an inchworm. While the back gripper holds on, the front gripper releases and the body extends forward, allowing the robot to literally feel around for a good place to grip.

Keeping to the inchworm theme, the robot doesn't use much in the way of fancy sensors. Instead, it's all tactile. You can tell the robot which direction you'd like it to go and how far, and the robot will grope its way to its destination, adaptively navigating from trunk to branches.

At the moment, Treebot is more or less blind. This isn't necessarily a problem, but it could get where it wants to go much faster if it's able to tell which branches have the highest potential to allow it to efficiently climb higher up, so researchers are working on ways to help Treebot optimize its climbing path.

TreeBot was designed by Tin Lun Lam and Yangsheng Xu from The Chinese University of Hong Kong, and their research was presented at ICRA last week in a paper entitled "Treebot: Autonomous Tree Climbing by Tactile Sensing."

How Robots Can Learn From Your Pathetic Failures

Robots that can learn from demonstrations are capable of watching a human do something, and then copying (or even improving on) the motions that the human makes in order to learn new tasks. This is fine if you're good at the task that you're trying to teach the robot, but if you're bad at it, you and your robot student are going to run into some problems.

Daniel H. Grollman and Aude Billard from the Learning Algorithms and Systems Laboratory at EPFL, in Lausanne, Switzerland, are working on ways for robots to learn from demonstrations, even if those demonstrations are failures. In the following video, a human shows a robot how to prop up a block and toss a ball into a basket without actually succeeding at either task:

The researchers developed learning algorithms that allow the robot to analyze your behavior and mathematically determine what parts of the task you're getting right (or you think you're getting right) and where you're screwing up, and eventually, it teaches itself to perform the task better than you. At the moment, the robot isn't using an adaptive learning approach; it's just trying different things until it accomplishes the objective. But part of the appeal of this system is that it uses failed human examples to help it know the extent of what it should try. I can almost hear a robotic voice saying, "Human, it's okay to fail."

Grollman and Billard describe their work in a paper, "Donut As I Do: Learning From Failed Demonstrations," presented last week at the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), in Shanghai, and they were honored with the Best Cognitive Robotics Paper award. Congrats!

[ Post updated to correct for the fact that the robot can't yet infer what your overall goal is... But they're working on it! ]

Lingodroid Robots Invent Their Own Spoken Language

lingodroids language robots

When robots talk to each other, they're not generally using language as we think of it, with words to communicate both concrete and abstract concepts. Now Australian researchers are teaching a pair of robots to communicate linguistically like humans by inventing new spoken words, a lexicon that the roboticists can teach to other robots to generate an entirely new language.

Ruth Schulz and her colleagues at the University of Queensland and Queensland University of Technology call their robots the Lingodroids. The robots consist of a mobile platform equipped with a camera, laser range finder, and sonar for mapping and obstacle avoidance. The robots also carry a microphone and speakers for audible communication between them.

To understand the concept behind the project, consider a simplified case of how language might have developed. Let's say that all of a sudden you wake up somewhere with your memory completely wiped, not knowing English, Klingon, or any other language. And then you meet some other person who's in the exact same situation as you. What do you do?

What might very well end up happening is that you invent some random word to describe where you are right now, and then point at the ground and tell the word to the other person, establishing a connection between this new word and a place. And this is exactly what the Lingodroids do. If one of the robots finds itself in an unfamiliar area, it'll make up a word to describe it, choosing a random combination from a set of syllables. It then communicates that word to other robots that it meets, thereby defining the name of a place.

lingodroids language robots

From this fundamental base, the robots can play games with each other to reinforce the language. For example, one robot might tell the other robot “kuzo,” and then both robots will race to where they think “kuzo” is. When they meet at or close to the same place, that reinforces the connection between a word and a location. And from “kuzo,” one robot can ask the other about the place they just came from, resulting in words for more abstract concepts like direction and distance:

lingodroids language robots
This image shows what words the robots agreed on for direction and distance concepts. For example, “vupe hiza” would mean a medium long distance to the east.

After playing several hundred games to develop their language, the robots agreed on directions within 10 degrees and distances within 0.375 meters. And using just their invented language, the robots created spatial maps (including areas that they were unable to explore) that agree remarkably well:

lingodroids language robots

In the future, researchers hope to enable the Lingodroids to "talk" about even more elaborate concepts, like descriptions of how to get to a place or the accessibility of places on the map. Ultimately, techniques like this may help robots to communicate with each other more effectively, and may even enable novel ways for robots to talk to humans.

Schulz and her colleagues -- Arren Glover, Michael J. Milford, Gordon Wyeth, and Janet Wiles -- describe their work in a paper, "Lingodroids: Studies in Spatial Cognition and Language," presented last week at the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), in Shanghai.

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Disney Working on Artistic Robot Swarms

disney robot swarm

I didn't know that Disney had a research arm, but they do, and the work that they're presenting at the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) here in Shanghai might give a little peek into one of their future theme park attractions.

What Disney researchers, working with colleagues at ETH Zurich, want to do is develop algorithms that instruct swarms of robots on how to move into into different patterns using smooth and visually appealing transitions. It's kind of like a marching band, except with lots of little robots that light up in pretty colors:

While the algorithms haven't been specifically designed to make the transitions nice looking, a variety of different strategies were tested, and the prettiest one was chosen. Next, the researchers are going to try to toss some obstacles into the mix, and see how well the robots do with moving patterns, as opposed to static shapes.

This isn't the only interesting paper that Disney Research is presenting at ICRA. They're also working on developing a control system for a robot that can walk around on a ball:

Disney robot ball

As to whether or how any of this is going to make it into a Disney theme park near you, well, you'll just have to keep your fingers crossed and use your imagination.

The Disney and ETH researchers -- Javier Alonso-Mora, Andreas Breitenmoser, Martin Rufli, Roland Siegwart, and Paul Beardsley -- describe the work in a paper, "Multi-Robot System for Artistic Pattern Formation," presented yesterday at ICRA.

Little Rolling Robot Transforms Into Helicopter

Designing a robot that can traverse variable terrain usually involves a number of unsatisfactory compromises. You can go with a flying robot, which will almost never get stuck, but is of limited use in detailed sensing and can't operate for very long. Or, you can go with a ground robot, which is much more efficient, but also much more likely to run into an obstacle that it can't get around.

An ideal platform would spend most of its time on the ground but still be able to fly when it needs to, but this is a very tricky thing to make happen, since the design of something that drives is fundamentally different from the design of something that flies. Researchers from the Center for Distributed Robotics at the University of Minnesota have managed to create a single robot that can actually do this effectively:

This is just the first (very fragile) prototype; the next version is much more robust and relies on a non-coaxial system for flight:

hybrid land air robot

hybrid land air robot

As it turns out, it was actually more efficient to design the robot with two completely independent motor systems than to try to design a transmission that would allow the low speed wheel motors to power the rotors or vice versa. And even then, it's still extremely complicated: the rotor folding mechanism cost almost US $20,000 to create. With that in mind, future developments for this platform will focus on making things simpler, while also teaching the robot to take advantage of its hybrid nature when it comes to autonomous path planning.

The researchers -- Alex Kossett and robotics professor and IEEE Fellow Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos -- describe their work in a paper, "A Robust Miniature Robot Design for Land/Air Hybrid Locomotion," presented yesterday at the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), in Shanghai.

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Awesomely Bad Ideas: Teaching a Robot to Sword Fight

In a paper presented this week at the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), in Shanghai, Georgia Tech researcher Tobias Kunz starts thusly: "In order to deploy safe and flexible robots for service and automation, robots must act safely in close contact with humans." Accompanying this innocuous first sentence is this picture:

human robot sword fight

You're probably wondering, at this point, just what the heck a robot with a sword has to do with safety of all things. And why do people keep giving swords to robots anyway? There was Hubo II dancing with one last year, and just three days ago we saw two industrial manipulators dueling with lightsabers.

As it turns out, Kunz says that one good way to get a robot to be dynamically safe around humans is to just program it to think of humans as adversaries. Huh? You may still be wondering why giving a robot a sword and teaching it to think of humans as bad guys is somehow a good thing, but bear with me.

On a fundamental level, a lot of what sword fighting is about is predicting the intentions of a human and then deciding how to respond. By teaching a robot to defensively (just defensively, mind you) block incoming sword attacks, the idea is to create a general model that robots can use to react quickly and safely around the unpredictable movements of nearby humans.

Plus, come on, it's just awesome. Here's a simulation of the work in progress:

So far, the sword fighting is only taking place in a computer, but as you can see from the pic, Georgia Tech does apparently have a real robot that's capable of wielding a real(ish) sword. Letting this thing loose against a pack of real-life ninjas is clearly the next logical step.

Kunz did the work with colleagues Peter Kingston, Mike Stilman, and Magnus Egerstedt, and their ICRA paper was titled, "Dynamic Chess: Strategic Planning for Robot Motion."

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