Exoskeletons Around the World
Homayoon Kazerooni, University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley''s second-generation exoskeleton, Bleex 2, is an agile system that lets a person walk and run while carrying heavy loads strapped to a backpacklike frame.
Stephen Jacobsen, Sarcos Research Corp., Salt Lake City
Sarcos''s exoskeleton is a full-body system with powered robotic arms and legs. One of the strongest ever built, it can help a person haul 84 kilograms without feeling the load.
Jacob Rosen, University of Washington, Seattle
A full-arm exoskeleton controlled by neuromuscular signals, it has 7 degrees of freedom. The goal is to help people suffering from various neurological disabilities.
Franois G. Pin and John Jansen, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.
A tethered bomb-loading exoskeleton enables a human operator to raise a 1000-kg bomb as if it weighed only 3 kg and load it onto an aircraft.
Benjamin T. Krupp, Yobotics Inc., Cincinnati
Based on research at the MIT Leg Laboratory, the RoboWalker orthotic leg brace augments or replaces muscle functions. It is awaiting commercialization.
John Dick, Applied Motion Inc., Claremont, Calif.
SpringWalker is a lower-body exoskeleton that can run at 24 kilometers per hour or carry a 90-kg load at a fast walk. It is awaiting commercialization.
Yoshiyuki Sankai, University of Tsukuba, Japan
HAL-5 is a full-body suit with electric actuators designed to help elderly and disabled people walk. It will be available in Japan in November  for about US $13 800.
Keijiro Yamamoto, Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Atsugi, Japan
A full-body exoskeleton with pneumatic actuators powered by batteries, the Power Suit allows a nurse to carry an 85-kg patient without breaking a sweat.
Kazuo Kiguchi, Saga University, Saga City, Japan
An upper-limb exoskeleton that translates neuromuscular signals from arm muscles into robotic motion. Designed to assist physically weak or injured people.
Hiroshi Kobayashi, Science University of Tokyo
Lightweight upper-limb ''muscle suit'' that uses soft, flexible pneumatic actuators. Designed to help paralyzed people with their daily activities.
Munsang Kim, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul
An exoskeleton master arm with pneumatic actuators for controlling a humanoid robot''s arms. The user feels the same force as the robot does.
Darwin Caldwell and Nikolaos Tsagarakis, University of Salford, Manchester, England
An exoskeleton hand exerciser rehabilitates hand muscles by allowing the wearer to accurately repeat finger motions. It is used in conjunction with virtual reality exercises.
Antonio Frisoli, Scuola Superiore, Sant''Anna, Pisa, Italy
An arm and hand exoskeleton, L-EXOS (Light Exoskeleton) can be used for human interaction with virtual environments and teleoperation tasks.
Gnter Hommel, Technische Universitt Berlin
A lower extremity orthotic exoskeleton driven by electric actuators, it is designed to assist people in rehabilitation exercises and also in everyday movements.